Alfa Romeo Definition from Answers com

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Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars

Alfa Romeo

Alfa ninety years of existence some of the most important in motoring history. It is a story of designers, races and engines stand as technological and sporting of the Twentieth century. A brand as Alfa Romeo is the sum of all these and also of the work and professional of the thousands of people—as-gineers, workers and have succeeded one another in its and offices and on the racing track.

Romeos are still not made for who believe driving is boring and see only as a means of getting A to B. They are built to transcend the and enter the realm of emotion. embody aesthetic taste, a for sophisticated engineering, the pleasure of behind a driving wheel and the to express one’s own personality.

Società Anonima Lombarda Automobili

1915: Nicola acquires Alfa.

1918: name to Società Anonima Ing.

1930: Company name to Societe Anonomie Romeo.

1933: Italian takes control of Alfa

1960: Construction begins on new plant in Arese.

1963: of Giulia Sprint GT model.

State-owned Finmeccanica acquires Romeo’s

1986: Fiat Alfa Romeo.

1989: Alfa Romeo Distributors of America

1993: Alfa is pulled out of American market.

Company launches 156 sedan.

Company launches 166 sedan.

Fiat enters partnership GM, announces return of

Type: Owned Subsidiary of Fiat

Address: Fiat S.p.A. Marconi 10, Turin, Italy

(+39) 11 65651

Fax: 11 6863525

Employees: 1,500

1910 as Società Anonima Fabbrica

NAIC: 33611 Manufacturing

Alfa Romeo is one of the famous sports cars in the along with Porsche. Maserati, Corvette, Lamborghini, and After experiencing severe difficulties during the early which resulted in the company’s from the U.S. market, Romeo and its parent company, have performed a turnaround of the carmaker—booking international success the 156 model, introduced in 1998 to acclaim, followed by the 166 sedan. In the company prepared for more with the October launch of the

Alfa Romeo’s renewed has not been enough for Fiat, which saw losses totaling than US$100 million in In March 2000, Fiat a share-swap partnership agreement General Motors Corporation giving the U.S. carmaker 20 of Fiat and making Italy’s automaker the largest single GM with 5.1 percent of the Detroit The GM-Fiat agreement has already a bonus for Alfa Romeo—following the Fiat announced its intention to Alfa Romeo to the U.S. with a new Spider design.

Alfa Romeo was founded in just north of Milan, in Cav Ugo Stella, managing director of a assembly plant for the Darracq, a automobile, decided to organize a to purchase the plant and build a car suitable for the harsh and mountainous roads. Along with a few businessmen, he took out a loan to the Darracq plant.

The group itself the Lombardy Car Manufacturing (Società Anonima Lombarda Automobili) and soon was known by its

Ugo Stella hired Giuseppi as chief automotive designer of the new Merosi had worked previously as a for Marchand, Fiat, and Bianchi car and was well qualified to design touring cars and cars for the circuit. His first design for included a monobloc engine, tension magneto ignition, crankshaft. side valves, and lubrication.

A radiator badge was designed for the new firm’s cars, the soon-to-be famous red cross and symbols that were of the emblems of the city of Milan and the family. A blue border the edge of the circular badge, the word ‘ALFA’ at the top and ‘MILANO’ at the First inscribed in brass the lettering was replaced shortly with white enamel. the first year of business, manufactured ten cars each of a 12 and a 24 horsepower model; one year production had increased to 40 cars of model.

By the time World War I in 1914, ALFA was manufacturing 272 a year with a staff of 300.

Although revenues car sales seemed to provide funds for ALFA to continue in 1915 the company was acquired, and surprisingly, by Nicola Romeo. rather humble beginnings, had graduated from the University of with a degree in electrical After working for a short in Germany and then France, he to his native Italy and started a in Milan in association with the company Ingersoll-Rand.

Romeo’s was so successful that he soon his own firm to manufacture mining This, too, proved the expansion of his company was so rapid, the number of employees he hired from 100 to more than in three months during the of 1915.

When Romeo purchased in 1915, there were among the remaining management and that the company was doomed for Romeo had purchased not only but also numerous other in the area. His goal was to create an combine that manufactured tractors, air brakes, ploughs, equipment, and other assorted for use in heavy industry. Fortunately, was also a motoring enthusiast and had dreamed of making a prestigious sports car. As a result, he expanded the production facilities at the factory in Portello.

In February he changed the name of the firm to Anonima Italiana Ing. Romeo Company. In addition, he to place his own name next to the ALFA name on the company’s badge, and after 1918 all the cars appeared with Romeo’ on the hood.

During the Alfa Romeos on the racing established the company as one of the premier car manufacturers in the world. Alfa relied heavily on modified of its prewar racing cars, designer Merosi labored to design more up-to-date As Merosi’s new designs were on the raceways, the company began to win prestigious competitions as the Parma-Berceto, the Hill Climb, the Coppa the Aosta-Great St. Bernard Hill the Autumn Grand Prix, the of Savio race, the Circuit of race, the European Grand and many, many more. Romeo was determined to wrest the racing crown from competitor and rival Fiat, and he the best drivers and mechanics in to do so.

Enzo Ferrari, who was to become in his own right as an Italian sports car won the 1927 Circuit of Modena in a 150 Alfa Romeo. As Alfa continued to win races, the innovations led to the successes of the racing cars affected the design and production of the touring cars and roadsters; for front wheel brakes, from the Alfa Romeo cars, were installed on cars for the first time.

Jano, who replaced Merosi as of design at Alfa Romeo in continued the tradition of improving the cars through his creations for the circuit. Jano’s first for general production was the NR (Nicola touring car, which a single overhead camshaft. ignition, a four-speed gearbox, and brakes. Despite the growing and reputation of the company, Nicola suddenly and inexplicably retired in and management of the company was assumed by the of directors.

Unfortunately, the firm to experience financial difficulties as as Romeo retired.

During the early 1930s, changed the name of the firm Ing Nicola Romeo and Company to Anonomie Alfa Romeo. Romeo’s revenues continued to and in 1933 the government-sponsored Istituto Industriale (IRI) assumed of the company. Although Alfa technically retained its status as a corporation with its own board of the company had essentially been Under the auspices of IRI, and the rise of Benito Mussolini as of Italy, Alfa Romeo’s facilities at Portello were to include airplane engines, diesel engines, and even aircraft.

Jano continued to touring cars and racing for the company through the mid-1930s, but car became less and less as Mussolini prepared Italy for

Alfa Romeo’s fortunes World War II slipped even In 1936 a Spanish engineer by the of Wilfredo Ricart was hired to Jano as head of the design at Alfa Romeo. Ricart had experience designing diesel and sports and racing cars and had organized public transportation in the of Valencia before arriving in Expectations of his potential for designing Romeo cars were high.

But Ricart, it was soon exhibited some very habits, including a penchant for enormously thick rubber-soled When asked by Enzo why he affected these shoes, replied in all seriousness that a brain must be cushioned the harsh unevenness of the ground its delicate mechanics be disrupted. hearing Ricart’s response, left Alfa Romeo.

the war years, Ricart’s designs for the never went beyond the stage.

After the end of World War II, Romeo’s factory at Portello rebuilding because of the damage by American and British bombing At the same time, the company’s of directors decided to release from his contract and hire Satta to replace him. was the last of the great Alfa designers. Educated as an aeronautical Satta guided the company an era of racing success and economic Satta was responsible for designing the 6C Super Sport, the 1900 the Giulietta Sprint Special, and the Spider Veloce.

All of these sold extremely well with the Spider Veloce especially well in both and the United States. During tenure, Alfa Romeo continued to be successful in racing, such prestigious races as the and 1951 Swiss Grand and the 1953 Grand Prix of at Merano.

By the early 1960s, the at Portello was unable to produce cars to suit the growing of Alfa Romeo customers, so the built a new assembly plant at about ten miles from In 1963 the first Giulia GT rolled out of the plant at Arese, and by manufacturing capacity had increased to automobiles per year. Still for the best performance from its the company built a test at Balocco, west of Milan.

Numerous prototypes were on this track, and Satta’s as a designer continued to grow each successful production. As increased, Alfa Romeo the foundation for a new plant just Naples, the place of Nicola birth.

Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars

In 1970 Alfa sold 109,598 cars primarily in Europe and the United The company was at the height of its success, a growing share of the sports car in every country where it cars. When Satta accolades were heaped him, both by his peers and by the government. After Satta’s however, Alfa Romeo to experience managerial and financial

Rising production costs and competition from Ferrari, Jaguar, Porsche, and American car led to declining revenues. In addition, the of testing new Alfa Romeo through the racing circuit was less important to the design and technical problems began to in cars purchased by customers high levels of performance. By the 1980s, the manufacturer’s financial had deteriorated so rapidly that the holding company Finmeccanica had control of the Alfa Romeo

Under the auspices of Finmeccanica, Romeo’s fortunes fared no Management was unable to stop the financial hemorrhaging and, as a Alfa Romeo became an takeover target. Ford Company expressed interest, but in Fiat outbid Ford, Alfa Romeo and all its holdings for billion.

Fiat, a well-established car manufacturer owned by the Agnelli regarded Alfa Romeo as the complement to its own line of European cars.

Alfa Romeo from Fiat’s largesse—Fiat to invest more than billion in rehabilitating and improving the manufacturing plants in Portello, and Arese, while more US$1.25 billion was earmarked for and development. Yet Fiat’s direct and supervision of Alfa Romeo car and distribution was unable to reverse the fortunes. In 1989 Fiat Alfa Romeo Distributors of America, a 50-50 joint with Chrysler. This it was hoped, would enable Romeo to increase its presence in the automobile market.

Since Romeo had sold 8,201 in 1986 in the United States, it was not an prediction that annual would increase to 12,000 by With new designs ready to from the company’s Italian Chrysler and Fiat were confident enough to project sales figures of US$40,000 to by 1995. Fiat depended on knowledge of the American car market and Chrysler management a free in advertising and distributing Alfa cars.

From the beginning of the collaboration, almost nothing went to plan. The first Alfa car produced under Fiat the 164 sedan, was delayed so that engineers could improve its and add a 2.0-liter turbo engine. The lasted months longer expected, and distributors in the United were left with to sell except the Milano and the old version of the Spider convertible. the Alfa Romeo Milano, design significantly influenced by engineers, was plagued with problems and quickly developed a for unreliability. Chrysler, dissatisfied the results of the joint venture, to dissolve the partnership in 1991.

withdrawal left Fiat to Alfa Romeo cars in the United States and, as a Alfa Romeo’s presence in the States began to decline During 1991 only 649 Romeo cars were in the United States.

In an attempt to Alfa Romeo’s dwindling share, Fiat engineers the 155, introducing the car in Europe in The car did not sell well, however, industry analysts attributed to the exterior and interior design. earnings decreasing and debt for its U.S. operation, Fiat not to export the 155 to the United States.

In Alfa Romeo’s car production 24 percent to only 109,598 most of which were in Europe. A decision by Fiat not to sell the new Spider convertible, the coupe, or the newly designed 145 in the United States confirmed the decision to pull out of the U.S.

Nonetheless, Fiat had far from the legendary Alfa Romeo Throughout the 1990s, the company a retooling of the Alfa Romeo, at winning back customers an increased commitment to quality in as well as a return to the design that had built the Alfa name. By 1998, Alfa was officially ‘back’: in that the company’s new 156 sedan won the European Car of the award, sparking a rush of

By the end of 1998, the success of the 156 was confirmed, orders nearing 200,000 from 60 countries.

Alfa celebrated its 90th anniversary in with another success, the of the 166 sedan, designed to compete in the class as the Mercedes E series. The 166 as successful as the 156, and in Europe, at Alfa Romeo had once become a favorite among car The return of the Alfa Romeo was not enough to rescue the failing however.

After posting losses of than US$100 million in Fiat acknowledged that it was a ‘partner’ automotive company.

In 2000, the company reached a agreement with General In a share-swap agreement, which GM 20 percent of Fiat and Fiat 5.1 of GM—making the Italian company the GM shareholder—the two companies announced intention to join forces to their positions in the European and American markets. At the same Fiat acknowledged its intention to Alfa Romeo to the U.S. as early as 2004, with a new model especially designed for the car market.

With the backing of Italy’s largest industrial and GM, the world’s largest automaker, the Romeo name seemed to continue thrilling sports car well into the 21st

Principal Competitors

AUDI AG; Motoren Werke; DaimlerChrysler AG; Motor Company; General Corporation; Honda Motor Limited; Hyundai Group; Motors, Ltd.; Kia Motors Mazda Motor Corporation; Motors Corporation; Nissan Company; Peugeot S.A.; AG; Renault S.A.; Saab AB; Suzuki Motor Corporation; Motor Corporation; Volkswagen

Further Reading

Ciferri, ‘Fiat Performs CPR to Revive Romeo,’ Automotive News, May 16, p. 26.

Green, Gavin, ‘Alfa Keeps Good Times International Herald Tribune . 4, 1998.

Henry, Jim, Weighs Alfa’s Fate in Automotive News, July 5, p. 4.

Kiley, David, ‘Fiat’s Romeo May Return to USA,’ USA June 22, 2000, p. 6B.

Pitt, Alfa Romeo, New York: Books, Inc. 1971.

Andrea, ‘Europe’s Comeback Lighting Dimensions, February 1,

Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars
Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars
Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars
Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars
Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars
Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars
Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Electric Cars

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