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General Motors EV1

From Carriages to Motor

One of McLaughlin’s three sons to be a chemist; he went to the United and established the Canada Dry Company. The two became partners of the McLaughlin Company.

Around 1901, Sam and George went for a ride in the bookkeeper’s automobile. Immediately they tried to persuade father that making a carriage would be a profitable but he remained unconvinced, and Sam and George had to the matter surreptitiously.

In 1905, Sam several motor cars but decided that the Buick was the car he to make in Oshawa.

He nearly to a manufacturing agreement with an old in the United States —Billy a partner in the Buick Motor the deal fell apart the financial arrangements. Back at Sam and George finally got father to agree to a plan to form the Motor Car Company.

Production was to begin when the engineer seriously ill. After hesitation, Sam sent a telegram to and asked to borrow an engineer. The day Durant arrived with two executives, the original plans for were resurrected, and in 1908 the turned out 154 cars — McLaughlins — with engines.

Canadian Cars a Reputation for Quality

Canada was of its McLaughlin. After a Buick won the race at the Indianapolis Speedway in the States, the McLaughlin’s advertising men to cash in on the elaborate Buick campaign. They persuaded to change their car’s from McLaughlin to Buick.

sales declined, the car was rechristened – this time as the McLaughlin-Buick.

In Durant had assembled Buick and into General Motors, but by he had overreached himself and was ousted his company by alarmed bankers.

he started a new venture with a Buick racing driver Switzerland, Louis Chevrolet. The popularity grew so fast by 1915 Durant’s Chevrolet were worth enough he could regain control of GM.

planned to build a Chevrolet in Toronto, and the McLaughlins were about competition with the One day while visiting New York, at with Durant and a Chevrolet Sam casually asked how the Canadian was going. “Why don’t you it to the McLaughlin Boys, Billy?” in the stockholder. “Well, Sam, do you it?” asked Durant. In two Durant and the McLaughlins had reached a

Robert McLaughlin –still not convinced that the era of horse-drawn was almost over—reluctantly agreed to the of his carriage business to make way for of Chevrolets alongside Buicks at the plant. As with the McLaughlin-Buicks, the built Chevrolets had special Their bodies were to Sam McLaughlin’s designs, and the McLaughlin applied a superior finish.

On seeing a McLaughlin-Buick left outside General Motors’ New office, a GM executive ordered it home: “It’s gathering it’s no more like one of our than a St. Bernard is like a

Family Business Becomes Motors of Canada (1918 Today)

The McLaughlins’ Chevrolets as much of a success in Canada as were in the United States. By though, neither George nor Sam had interested in carrying on the business. In a meeting, GM management agreed to buy the business, but on one condition -that the stay to run it. Delighted with the of confidence, Sam and George became the president and vice president of Motors of Canada. Sam remained until 1945.

When he in 1972, at the age of 100, he was still of the board. Under his guidance, Motors of Canada enjoyed growth and became a major to GM’s total production.

GM of Today

By its 30th anniversary in GM of Canada had produced a million In 1965, Canada and the United signed the Canada-U.S. Automotive Trade Agreement (Autopact).

The allowed GM of Canada to increase its capacity dramatically. More the North American Free Agreement (NAFTA) between the Canada and Mexico has led to a wide-open trade in North America. GM of Canada has the capacity to manufacture than one million units in a year –generating significant earnings by shipping about 90 of those vehicles to the United

It also satisfies a third of 1.2 million unit market, the largest automobile market in the

In the 1980s, GM of Canada began an $8 reindustrialization program. Now, the GM in Oshawa is the centrepiece of GM of Canada’s operations. It is the largest, most integrated vehicle-manufacturing complex in America.

General Motors of presently employs 20,000 working in manufacturing, marketing, customer support and other areas. General Motors of has seven assembly and component within Ontario as well as zone, General Motors Corporation (GMAC) and Motors Corporation (MIC) branches across Canada.

TIMELINE

• Olds Motor Vehicle Co. is by Ransom Olds in Lansing, and the first Oldsmobile is assembled.

• Olds Motor Vehicle and Gasoline Engine Works of merge to form Olds Works. The first factory for automobile production in the U.S. is by Olds in Detroit on Jefferson East. In Germany, Adam first motor car — the System Lutzmann — is

• 1901: The Curved Dash becomes the first American car to be in quantity. It sells for $650.

• 1902: Cadillac Automobile Co. after the founder of the city of is formed in Detroit by Henry M. a manufacturer of automotive components.

• 1903: Plumbing fixture David Dunbar Buick Buick Motor Co.

• 1904: C. Durant, the grandson of a Michigan who served during the Civil War and who a millionaire in the horse carriage takes control of Buick.

• 16, 1908: Durant forms Motors Corp. as a holding by incorporating Buick.

• Nov. Olds becomes the second car to join the GM family.

• Jan. GM acquires a 50 percent stake in Motor Car Co. now known as Pontiac. months later, when founder Edward Murphy GM takes full control.

• 1909: Cadillac is acquired by GM for million.

• 1909: The Rapid Vehicle Co. of Pontiac, Mich. today as GMC, and Reliance Truck Co. of Owosso, Mich. are by GM. A Rapid becomes the first to scale Pikes Peak in in 1909. AC Spark Plug is by GM.

• 1910: Cadillac becomes the automaker to offer closed as standard equipment, revolutionizing by offering all-weather driving. In for loans required to avoid collapse, bankers step in and Durant is removed from at GM.

• 1911: Louis Chevrolet, Little and Edwin Cambell, son-in-law, form Chevrolet in to compete with the Ford T. General Motors Export is formed to handle the sale of all GM outside the U.S. and Canada.

• The electric self-starter is made by Cadillac and wins the coveted Trophy awarded by the Royal Club in London.

• 1915: The Co. of Delaware, reaping profits the sale of explosives, begins to in GM and Pierre S. du Pont is elected of the automaker. He serves until

• 1916: Durant regains of GM but is forced out for the last time in

• 1918: Chevrolet joins the GM

• 1919: Construction of the GM building in begins. At 15 stories high and more than 1.3 million feet, it underscores Durant’s in the automaker’s future, even GM controls just 10 percent of sales and produces one-third of Ford Motor Co.’s at the time. GM forms GM Acceptance to finance sale of new vehicles.

rival Henry Ford was to credit, GMAC would help propel GM past in car sales in the late 1920s as Americans grew comfortable car payments.

• 1920: The General Research Corp. predecessor to the GM Laboratories, is established.

• 1921: begins at the Clark Street factory in Detroit. It is the most assembly plant in the industry at the and remains open until

• 1923: GM’s first factory opens in Copenhagen, and Buick introduces 4-wheel

• 1924: Alfred P. Sloan, legendary chief executive and chairman, first describes the marketing mantra across all — A car for every purse and GM establishes the industry’s first proving grounds on a 2,168-acre in Milford, Mich.

• 1925: Motors Ltd. of the United is purchased by GM.

• 1926: The first — the 6-cylinder ‘Chief of the — is introduced by Oakland at the New Auto Show.

• 1927: The LaSalle, which refined motoring, is introduced. It is the first car designed by a stylist: Harley

• 1928: Shatter-proof safety debuts on all windows of 1929 and LaSalle models.

• 1929: GM control of Adam Opel AG of

• 1930: The Electro-Motive Co. of Cleveland part of GM.

• 1932: The Pontiac Division is formed, replacing

• 1934: The industry’s first tests are conducted by GM by running one of a car up a ramp at the top of a hill. GM also the first barrier impact when cars are directed a retaining wall at low speeds.

• The Suburban Carryall — a truck with seating for — is introduced by Chevrolet. The Olympia is introduced, becoming the mass-produced car with all-steel body.

• 1936: The Buick designed by Harley Earl and a in automotive styling, debuts. GM in Flint begin historic strike in December. The strike end on Feb.

11, 1937, when GM the United Auto Workers marking the beginning of collective at Detroit automakers.

• 1937: The first column-mounted gearshift is by Pontiac. Detroit Diesel is created to produce small engines.

• 1939: Buick the industry’s first rear signals to use flashers.

• 1940: The German government officially control of Adam Opel AG. GM its 25,000,000th car. GM President S. Knudsen is named chairman of the government’s new Office of Production to lead the nation’s wartime program.

• 1941: GM ceases in Japan.

• 1942: All of GM’s operations are converted to support purposes. During World War II, GM $12.3 billion in material to the Allied war effort, including the 6X6 truck and the DUKW, nicknamed the because it was designed to carry up to 50 men on land or water.

• 1947: GM William Durant dies.

• The industry’s first V-8 engines are by Cadillac and Oldsmobile. GM and the UAW agree to historic bargaining milestones: of annual economic negotiations and contracts; a new wage formula provides cost of living and an annual improvement factor on increased efficiency that from technology advances.

• 1949: The Coupe deVille, first hardtop, debuts.

• Chevrolet introduces the Powerglide becoming the first entry-level to offer fully automatic

• 1953: The Chevrolet Corvette, the production sports car, It is also the first production car a plastic body to be produced in

• 1954: Cadillac becomes the automaker to offer power and automatic windshield wipers as equipment.

• 1956: The GM Technical in Warren, Mich. is dedicated. P. Sloan retires as chairman on 2.

• 1958: The first demonstration of an guided automobile takes at the GM Tech Center, paving the way for highway guidance systems. control debuts on 1959 and the Chevrolet El Camino, combining a big car a pickup truck, is introduced.

• The Chevrolet Corvair is unveiled.

• Three new small cars are in the U.S. the Buick Special, F-85 and the Pontiac Tempest.

General Motors EV1

• Heaters and defrosters become on Cadillac models.

• 1963: The Malibu debuts as a 1964

• 1965: Ralph Nader’s Unsafe at Any Speed, taking a look at GM and the Corvair, is published. The Toronado, the first front-wheel car to be built and sold in the U.S. the 1930s, is unveiled.

• 1966: The drive Cadillac Eldorado and Camaro debut. Front shoulder safety belts are on 1967 models.

• 1968: The GM Building opens on Fifth in New York City.

• 1969: GM the guidance and navigation systems guide the Apollo 11 astronauts to first landing on the moon and to Earth. Chevrolet discontinues the The Chevrolet Vega is introduced as a model.

• 1970: GM introduces or low-lead gasoline engines on all models in the U.S. and Canada.

• GM acquires a 34.2 percent in Japan’s Isuzu Ltd. GM and manufactures the mobility system for the Roving Vehicle which Apollo 15 astronauts to undertake first vehicular drive on the

• 1973: GM produces the first car with an air cushion restraint as an option. The Arab oil embargo and rise in gas prices prompts a rise in demand for Japanese-built cars in the U.S.

• 1974: The converter, first developed in the is introduced on all 1975 GM models to tailpipe emissions and comply federal clean air laws. GM with plans for an unprecedented of its U.S. cars in response to energy prices.

• 1976: The American convertible, a Cadillac, is in April 1976. Convertibles are in 1984.

• 1977: GM offers the domestic diesel engine on 1978 passenger cars the Oldsmobile Delta Eighty Ninety Eight and Custom

• 1979: Frigidaire is sold to Consolidated Industries Inc. new front-wheel drive compact debut: the Buick Skylark, Citation, Oldsmobile Omega and Phoenix.

• 1980: With the in a major recession and industry slumping, GM posts its first loss since 1920.

• GM and Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd. a distribution agreement that for GM to acquire 5 percent of the Japanese specialist.

• 1983: Buick plans to consolidate its car assembly, fabricating and body assembly in Flint, Mich. as part of a million project dubbed City. It was closed in 1999 and in 2002.

• 1983: GM and Toyota a joint venture to manufacture in California: New United Motor is designed to allow GM to grasp vaunted lean manufacturing GM unveils plans for a new small car to be called Saturn.

• 1984: Data Systems Corp. a major data processing and company, is acquired by GM.

• 1985: GM Hughes Aircraft Co.

• 1986: GM and form a joint venture to small cars and sport vehicles in Canada. Plans are to close 11 assembly and stamping in the U.S. and Canada.

• 1988: introduces the Geo line of small the Metro, Spectrum and Tracker.

• The Pontiac Transport and Oldsmobile — GM’s answer to the — are introduced and feature the plastic panels ever on a vehicle exterior. GM acquires a 50 stake in Swedish automaker Automobile AB.

• 1990: The Impact, an car, debuts to wide prompting GM to market the vehicle as as possible. The first Saturn rolls off an assembly line in Hill, Tenn.

• 1991: with mounting financial GM discloses plans to shutter or 21 U.S. and Canadian assembly and plants over four as well as 74,000 hourly and job cuts.

• 1992: GM’s market share losses and woes prompt the board of to elect John F. Smith Jr. executive officer and president the resignation of Robert C. Stempel. G. Smale, retired chairman of Gamble and a GM director since is named chairman of the board. GM American Operations is formed to the automaker’s U.S. business.

The GM debuts with an unprecedented 5 rebate to be used toward the of a new GM vehicle.

• 1994: GM’s Electronics unit introduces the first high-powered broadcast TV provider.

• 1995: The EV1 is introduced, GM the first automaker in modern to market an electric vehicle to the

• 1996: GM launches a Web site to an overview of its products and services, and plans to acquire the Renaissance in downtown Detroit for a new world EDS is split off from GM.

• 1999: GM divests Delphi Systems Corp. its long-time unit, in a spin-off to shareholders. GM and form an unprecedented five-year to explore and develop alternative propulsion technologies. GM acquires to the Hummer brand.

• 2000: a complete product overhaul the 1990s, GM announces plans to out Oldsmobile, the oldest automotive in the U.S. market. The last an Alero, will roll off an line in Lansing, where the was founded, in 2004. GM acquires stake in Saab.

• 2001: In to the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks on New and Washington, GM launches an unprecedented campaign featuring zero-percent payments to help the U.S. The Cadillac CTS is introduced, signaling a new theme for the luxury division, and go on sale in 2003.

• 2002: GM the bulk of Korean automaker Motor and creates a new company GM Daewoo Auto Technology. GM Russian production with a partner, AutoVAZ.


• 2005: investor Kirk Kerkorian amassing a major stake in GM, some restructuring moves, but sells it after failing to GM management to later pursue an with Renault-Nissan. Major rating firms downgrade GM and debt to junk — a in modern times.

• 2006: GM 51 percent of GMAC to a consortium led by Capital Management, raising $14 over 3 years. Saturn an ambitious renaissance with the of four key vehicles: the Sky roadster, crossover, Aura sedan and Vue crossover.

• 2007: After a strike, GM and the UAW reach an historic that shifts billions of in hourly retiree health obligations to the union. The two sides agree to a new two-tier wage that will pay future substantially less than employees.

• 2008: GM edges out to remain the world’s largest ranked by 2007 sales of million units, a title GM has for more than 77 years. GM its 100th anniversary in September.

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