General Motors EV1 Impact Electric Vehicles History

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General Motors EV1

General Motors EV1

26.4 kWh @ 343 (77 Ah)

with 481 kg (1,060 lb) NiMH pack

Electric range

55 mi (89 km) to 75 mi km) per charge with Delphi batteries

75 mi (121 km) to 100 mi (160 km) per (EPA City 28 mi (45 km), Hwy 28 mi (45 km) Panasonic Lead-acid batteries

75 mi km) to 150 mi (240 km) per charge (EPA 72 mi (116 km)), Hwy 60 mi (97 km)) NiMH batteries

The General EV1 was an electric car produced and leased by the Motors Corporation from to 1999. It was the first mass-produced and electric vehicle of the modern era a major automaker, and the first GM car to be an electric vehicle from the The decision to mass-produce an electric car after GM received a favorable for its 1990 Impact electric car, upon which the of the EV1 drew heavily.

Inspired by the Impact’s perceived potential for the California Air Resources Board subsequently passed a mandate made the production and sale of vehicles a requirement for the seven automakers selling cars in the States to continue to market vehicles in California. The EV1 was made through limited lease-only initially to residents of the cities of Los California and Phoenix and Tucson, EV1 lessees were officially in a real-world engineering evaluation and study into the feasibility of and marketing a commuter electric in select U.S. markets by GM’s Advanced Technology group.

The cars were not for purchase, and could be serviced at designated Saturn dealerships. a year of the EV1’s release, programs were also in San Francisco and Sacramento, California, with a limited program in the of Georgia.

While customer to the EV1 was positive, GM believed that cars occupied an unprofitable of the automobile market as they only able to lease 800 in face of production costs of billion over four An alliance of the major automakers the CARB regulation in court, in a slackening of the ZEV stipulation, permitting the to produce super-low-emissions vehicles, gas vehicles, and hybrid cars in of pure electrics. The EV1 program was discontinued in 2002, and all cars on the were repossessed.

Lessees not given the option to purchase cars from GM, which parts, service, and liability The majority of the repossessed EV1s crushed, and the rest delivered to and educational institutes with electric powertrains deactivated, the agreement that the cars not to be reactivated and driven on the road.

The discontinuation remains controversial, electric car enthusiasts, environmental groups and former EV1 lessees GM of self-sabotaging its electric car program to potential losses in spare sales, while also the oil industry for conspiring to keep cars off the road.

History of EV1

The GM Impact electric concept

In January 1990, GM chairman Smith demonstrated the Impact, an concept car, at the 1990 Los Auto Show. The car had been by electric vehicle company using design knowledge from GM’s participation in the World Solar Challenge, a race for solar vehicles, the Sunraycer (pic. on left), went on to win the competition. Alan of AC Propulsion designed and built the drive controller electronics for the and the design was later refined by Electronics.

On April 18, 1990, announced that the Impact become a production vehicle.

by the viability of the Impact, and motivated by promise to produce the Impact, the Air Resources Board (CARB) on a large environmental initiative, that each of the U.S.’s largest carmakers—the largest of was GM—would be required to make 2% of its emission-free by 1998, 5% by 2001, and 10% by in accordance with consumer in order to continue to sell in California. The mandate was instated to California’s poor air quality, at the time was worse than the 49 states combined. Other of what was then the American Manufacturers Association, along Toyota, Nissan and Honda, also developed a prototype vehicle in response to the new mandate.

In GM began PrEView, a program 50 handbuilt Impact electric would be lent to drivers for of one to two weeks, under the agreement their experiences would be Volunteers had to own a garage where a charging unit could be by an electric company. Program Sean McNamara said he expected at most eighty in the Los Angeles area, but was forced to the phone lines after people called in. In New York 14,000 callers responded the lines were closed.

response to the cars was favorable, as reviews by the automotive press. to Motor Trend . The Impact is one of those occasions where GM beyond any doubt that it how to build fantastic automobiles. is the world’s only electric that drives like a car. Automobile called the ride and handling amazing, its smooth delivery of power.


That year, a modified set a land speed record for electric vehicles of 183 mph (295 However, according to a front-page in The New York Times . GM was less pleased with the prospect of developed a successful electric

General Motors is preparing to put its vehicle act on the road, and planning for a

With pride and pessimism, the the furthest along of the Big Three in a mass-market electric car, that in the face of a California law requires that 2 percent of new be zero emission vehicles in 1997, it has done its best but the vehicle has come up short. Now it that lawmakers and regulators agree with it and postpone or the deadline

According to the report, GM the PrEView program as a failure, that the electric car was not yet viable, and the CARB regulations should be Dennis Minano, GM’s President for Energy and Environment, whether consumers desired vehicles. Robert J. Eaton, of Chrysler, also questioned the market was ready for electric and said, . if the law is there, we’ll it. at this point of time, can forecast that we can make [an car]. The negative positions by the automakers was criticized by Thomas C. the Commissioner of Environmental Conservation for New State, which had adopted the emission program.

According to consumers had demonstrated tremendous in electric cars, but automakers did not to render obsolete their dollar investments in internal engine technology.

Release of Gen I and reaction

Work on the GM electric car continued after the end of PrEView. the original 50 Impact cars destroyed after testing was the design had evolved into the GM EV1 by The EV1 would be the first GM car in history to a General Motors nameplate, of one of GM’s marques.

The first-generation, or Gen I which would be powered by batteries. had a stated range of 70 to 100 660 cars, painted dark red, and silver were The cars were made via a leasing program, with the to purchase the cars specifically by a contractual clause (the retail price was quoted as In similar fashion to the PrEView lessees were pre-screened by GM, only residents of Southern and Arizona eligible for participation. rates for the EV1 ranged from to $549 a month. The car’s was a media event, accompanied by an $8 promotional campaign, which prime-time TV advertising, billboards, a web and an appearance at the premiere of the Sylvester film Daylight . The first included celebrities, executives and

A total of 40 EV1 leases were at the release event, with GM that it would lease 100 by the end of the year. Deliveries began on 5, 1996.

Joe Kennedy, vice of marketing for GM marque Saturn, concerns regarding the EV1’s the outdated lead-acid battery and the car’s limited range, Let us not forget that technology small and grows slowly technology improves and costs go Some anti-taxation groups against the exemptions and tax credits EV1 lessees received, which said constituted government-subsidized for affluent professionals. Some of groups, such as consumer Californians Against Utility Abuse (which mounted to the use of taxpayer dollars to build EV charging stations), were accused of receiving their from oil companies interested in gasoline cars on the roads.

were also raised the car had received only a limited because GM had made a deal CARB to delay the implementation of the phase of the ZEV program, which had scheduled to go into effect in

In the first year of release, GM only 288 cars. However, by the brand manager for the EV1 program, Ken described the response of the car’s as wonderfully-manical loyalty. The lessees had the EV1 into their lifestyle, the car less a novelty item and a primary source of transportation.

Tom a lessee, praised the car on late-night shows, saying Believe it or that sucker goes!

EV1 enthusiasts believed that GM was ambivalence towards promotion of the EV1 its initial release. While one of the EV1 TV spots was nominated for an Emmy later advertising was limited to mail and print and TV ads in niche While GM remained officially to the electric vehicle, enthusiasts concerned that low public would result in the program scrapped.

One driver, Marvin Rush, a for the TV series Star Trek: . became so concerned that he $20,000 of his own funds to produce and air unofficial radio commercials for the While the automaker was initially to the action, it later changed its announcing that it would the spots official and reimburse The company spent $10 million on EV1 in 1997, and promised to increase amount by $5 million the following

According to EV1 program brand Frank Periera, the car was not suited to a advertising campaign because it appealed to a small fraction of the public, who were unfazed at the of a relatively expensive, limited-range

Second generation: 1999-2003

For the model year, GM released a Gen II of the EV1. Major improvements lower production costs, operation, extensive weight and the advent of a nickel-metal hydride battery. The Gen II models were released with a 60 amp-hour kilowatt-hour) Panasonic lead-acid pack, a slight improvement the Gen I power source using the 312 V voltage; later models an Ovonics NiMH battery at 77 Ah (26.4 kWh) with 343

Cars with the lead-acid had a range of 80 to 100 miles, while the cars could travel 100 and 140 miles between charges. For the EV1, the leasing program was to the cities of San Diego, Sacramento, and monthly payments ranged $349 to $574. 457 Gen II EV1s produced by General Motors and to customers in the eight months December 1999.

According to sources, hundreds of drivers to lease could not become EV1

On March 2, 2000, GM issued a for 450 Gen I EV1s. The automaker had determined a faulty charge port could eventually build up heat to catch on fire. thermal incidents and at least one occurred as a result of the defect, a car leased by Ron Brauer and Ruth as it was charging.

The recall did not affect EV1s.

Over the next two approximately 200 Gen I EV1s were with NiMH batteries and to their original lessees on two-year leases, including a new clause. Delays were due to design complications resulting the NiMH pack retrofit. As a GM offered Gen I drivers the opportunity to their lease at no charge, or the to transfer the lease to one of the remaining 150 EV1s — ahead of those on the waiting list for Gen II models.

cancellation

By 2002, 1,117 had been produced, though had ended in 1999, when GM down the EV1 assembly line. On 7, 2002, GM Advanced Technology brand manager Ken Stewart lessees that GM would be the cars from the road, an earlier statement that GM in fact not be taking cars off the from customers. Drivers that their working would be destroyed after

In late 2003, General then led by CEO Rick Wagoner, canceled the EV1 program. GM stated it could not sell enough of the to make the EV1 profitable. In addition, the of maintaining a parts supply and infrastructure for the 15-year minimum by the state of California meant existing leases would not be and all the cars would have to be to GM’s possession.

At least 58 EV1 sent letters and deposit to GM, requesting lease extensions at no or cost to the automaker. The drivers agreed to be responsible for the maintenance and costs of the EV1, and would GM the right to terminate the lease if repairs were needed. On 28, GM famously refused the offer and the checks, which totaled By contrast, Honda, which had similar actions with its EV+ agreed to extend its customer’s In November 2003, GM began the cars; several were to museums and educational institutions

Mott Community College in Michigan), albeit with powertrains meant to keep the from ever running but the majority were sent to car to be destroyed, allegedly with permission to do so.

The documentary Who Killed The Car presents evidence that GM with plans to cancel and the car, despite apparent interest. The film includes of GM employees on the EV1 team discussing a list of people interested in or purchasing EV1s. In 2003, a for the Los Angeles Times attempted to an EV1 from GM, but was told that he was to join their waiting along with undisclosed for an indefinite period of time, but my of getting a car were slim.

of GM and proponents of electric vehicles that GM feared the emergence of vehicle technology because the might cut into their spare parts market, as cars have far fewer parts than combustion Critics further charged when CARB, in response to the mandated that electric makeup a certain percentage of all sales, GM came to fear the EV1 might encourage unwanted in other states. GM battled CARB regulations, going as far as to sue in federal court. At the 2000 GM claimed that consumers simply not showing sufficient in the EV1 to meet the sales requirements for by CARB mandates.

The American automaker, along Toyota, cited a study had commissioned, which showed customers would only an electric car over a gasoline car if it a full $28,000 less a comparable gasoline car. Dr. E. Train of UC Berkeley, who conducted the stated that given a retail price of $21,000 for a SUV, Toyota would to give the average consumer a RAV4-EV plus a check for $7,000. An independent study by the California Electric Transportation (CalETC) and conducted by the Green Car and the Dohring Company automotive research firm found different results. The study the same research methodologies by the auto industry to identify for its gasoline vehicles.

It found the consumer market for EVs to be 12-18% of the new vehicle market in California, to annual sales of between and 226,800 electric vehicles, ten times the quantity specified by mandate. The results of the Toyota-GM were questioned in light of the of Toyota’s electric RAV4-EV, retailed at $30,000 yet had a waiting of its own. At the hearings, the automakers presented the hydrogen vehicle as a alternative to the gasoline car, by a recent federal earmark for research.

Many, including of the CARB hearing committee, concerned that this was a on the automakers’ part, in order to CARB eliminate the EV mandate, and hydrogen was not as viable of an alternative as it was to seem.

CARB had already back deadlines several in light of car companies not being to meet the ZEV requirement. In 2001, it amendments that would automakers credit for producing partial-zero emission vehicles, as hybrid cars. in place of EVs. However, the industry the relaxation of the rules to challenge the as a whole. General Motors and backed by the Bush Administration, suit against CARB in the US Court in the Eastern District of successfully arguing that method of determining whether or not a qualified as an Advanced Technology ZEV (AT PZEV) used the vehicle’s economy as one of the standards, in addition to emissions; according to federal states are barred from fuel economy in any way. Robert E. Coyle issued a injunction on June 11 against the ruling the provision unconstitutional and the implementation of CARB’s 2001

The mandate was modified, with the requirement reduced to at least 250 cell or battery-powered vehicles by

Reaction

In the aftermath of the program, to the cancellation of the EV1 continued to be mixed. In view, the EV1 was not a failure, but the program was when the expected breakthroughs in technology did not take place the anticipated timeline, citing the of availability of the NiMH-technology battery developed by Energy Conversion of Michigan, until late in the cycle. The batteries improved the range, but not as dramatically as expected, and with their own set of problems; a charging algorithm had to be used charge times), and the batteries up more quickly than the packs (requiring use of the air conditioner to them down, wasting The automaker also cited the of the CARB zero-emissions mandate as a in the program’s cancellation, though the was widely accused of lobbying the mandate in an act of deliberate self-sabotage.

The perspective was far less favorable; in the Wall Street Journal’ s Bureau Chief Joe White The EV1 was a failure, as were other vehicles launched in the 1990s to California clean-air regulators. opinion as echoed by Time who in 2008 placed the EV1 on their of The 50 Worst Cars of All Time.

In of falling car sales later in the as the world oil and financial crises to take hold, opinions of the EV1 began to change. In 2006, GM Chairman and CEO Rick Wagoner that his worst decision his tenure at GM was axing the EV1 electric-car and not putting the right resources hybrids. It didn’t affect but it did affect image.

Wagoner this assertion during an NPR after the December 2008 hearings on the U.S. auto bailout request. In the March 13, issue of Newsweek . GM RD chief Burns. now wishes GM hadn’t the plug-in hybrid EV1 prototype his had on the road a decade ago: we could turn back the of time,’ says Burns, could have had the Chevy 10 years earlier,’ referring to the plug-in hybrid car which was as the spiritual and technological successor to the

Resurrection

Some of the deactivated given to universities and engineering were reactivated, and driven on roads. The institutions came fire from General for violating the agreements of the donation, indicated that the cars not be licensed, nor driven on public and could only be restored and GM has potential legal obligations laws that require to maintain parts and service for consumer vehicles for a period of no than 15 years.

In 2004 Motors donated one of the first EV1s (serial number to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington It was displayed as part of the America on the exhibit at the National Museum of History until it was removed in during renovations to the museum. the car remains part of the Smithsonian the EV1 has yet to be redisplayed within the exhibit at the

Technology and design

The engine bay of the EV1

The before the release of the Impact and the EV1 had little in the way of development on the electric car The Henney Kilowatt. which production in 1961, was the last a feasible production electric car of any had been released; GM’s own and Electrovette of 1966 and 1976, never reached production, to little more than electric conversion kits for the popular gasoline models. and production costs difficulties blamed.

In contrast to these the EV1 was designed from the ground up to be an vehicle. It was not a conversion of an existing nor did it share a drivetrain with GM model, which contributed to its development and production costs. The EV1 was initially administered by a GM engineer Kenneth Baker, who had been the on the Electrovette program in the 1970s.

The EV1 was not only used to showcase the powertrain, but also premiered a of features and technologies that later find their way more common GM models and manufacturers’ cars. The EV1 was among the production vehicles to utilize in the construction of the frame. The car’s panels were made of rather than metal, the car lightweight and dent resistant.

brakes, which had just on the production car scene, and a traction system were among the advanced driveability technologies. improvements included a keyless and ignition system, a special thermal glass for better rejection on sunny days, an tire pressure loss system, electric power and a time-programmable HVAC system.

To efficiency, the EV1 possessed a very low coefficient (C d ) and reference area (C d A) of and 0.36 mІ (3.95 ftІ), Super-light magnesium alloy and seats provided strength their low weight, and self-sealing, resistance tires developed by rounded out the EV1’s exceptional characteristics.

The EV1 featured an aluminum dent-resistant plastic body and was sculpted to a drag coefficient of C d 0.19

At 169.7 inches mm) in length, and 69.5 inches mm) in width, the EV1 was a subcompact car, a 2-door coupй body

Drivetrain

The car’s 3-phase AC electric motor produced 137 horsepower (102 kW) at 7000 Like all electrically-powered cars, and a car powered by an ICE, the EV1 could its full torque capacity its power band, producing 110 (149 newton-meters) of torque between 0 and 7000 rpm, the omission of a manual or automatic Power was delivered to the front through a single-speed reduction transmission.

Battery

The Gen I EV1 models, in 1996, used lead-acid and weighed in at 3,086 pounds kg). The first batch of were provided by GM’s branch; these were at a mere 53 amp-hours at 312 volts, and the initially mediocre range of 55 to 75 (90 to 120 km) per charge. Gen II cars, released in used a new batch of lead-acid provided by Panasonic; some Gen I were retrofitted with battery pack.

General Motors EV1

The Japanese were rated at 60 amp-hours kWh) at 312 volts, and increased the range to 75 to 100 miles (120 to 160 Soon after the rollout of the generation cars, the originally nickel metal hydride Ovonic battery pack, reduced the car’s curb to 2,908 pounds (1,319 kg) production; this pack was retrofitted to earlier cars. The batteries, rated at 77 amp-hours kWh) at 343 volts, gave the a range of 75 to 150 miles (120 to 240 km) per more than twice the original Gen I cars could

It took the NiMH-equipped cars as as eight hours for the cars to to full capacity (though an 80% could be achieved in between one and hours). The Panasonic battery consisted of twenty-six 12 volt, 60 lead-acid batteries holding megajoules (18.7 kWh) of The NiMH packs contained 13.2 volt, 77 Ah nickel-metal batteries which held megajoules (26.4 kWh) of

Driving experience

The EV1’s

The experience of driving an EV1 was unlike a gasoline or diesel vehicle. The drag coefficient of 0.19 was the of any production automobile in history, typical production cars C d ‘s in the 0.3 to 0.4 range. The EV1’s shape meant it produced wind noise at highway providing a more comfortable experience for its occupants.

At lower and when stationary, the car produced to no noise at all, save for a whine from the single-speed reduction unit. The car’s shape, waterfall tail and fender skirts gave it a appearance, reminiscent of an updated, Citroлn DS. The EV1 had no analog dials, and all readouts were displayed in a thin curved strip high on the dashboard, just the windshield.

Thanks to the on-demand output of the electric motor, the EV1 accelerate from 0–50 mph km/h) in 6.3 seconds, and from mph (0–97 km/h) in eight The car’s top speed was electronically to 80 mph (130 km/h). At the time of the lead-acid battery-equipped EV1 was the only car produced which met all of the United Department of Energy’s EV America goals.

The home charger by GM, which was required for fast of the car, measured roughly 1.5 by 2 by 5 (0.5 by 0.6 by 1.5 m), and featured integrated and a resemblance to a gasoline pump. The refueled the car using induction, by inserting a Magne Charge into the slot between the headlights. The wireless charging meant that no direct was made, and charging the car while it was did not pose any risks, though were isolated incidents fires starting at the charge GM also offered a 120 V AC convenience that could be used any standard North America socket to slow-charge the battery The convenience charger was not available for equipped with the NiMH packs.

Installation of the device between one and two weeks, at an additional cost of $2500.

Analysis of vs. failure

The view of the EV1 as failure is a one in itself. When viewed as an to produce a viable EV product, it was a while certainly from perspective not a commercial success as the profit margins seen internal combustion engine remained elusive. If one considers the as a technological showpiece—a production car that actually could a gasoline powered vehicle—the outcome is less clear.

The EV1 was for the consumer market, and many found driving an EV1 to be a favorable On that basis, EV1 might as the most successful electric car built.

Some analysts suggested that it is inappropriate to the EV1 with existing gasoline commuter cars as the EV1 was, in a completely new product category had no equivalent vehicles to be judged

Costs

GM based the lease for the EV1 on an initial vehicle price of Lease payments ranged around $299 to $574 per depending on the availability of state GM did not offer consumers the option to at the end of the lease, the car’s residual was never established, making it to determine the actual full price or replacement value. One official said that EV1 cost the company about including research, development and associated costs; other placed the vehicle’s actual as high as $100,000.

GM stated the of the EV1 program at slightly less $500 million before and sales costs, and over $1 in total; a portion of this was defrayed by the Clinton Administration’s billion Partnership for a New Generation of (PNGV) program. In addition, all seeking to produce electric for market consumption also from matching government committed to the United States Battery Consortium.

Related

EV1 shown plugged into station

General Motors several prototype variants of the EV1 at the 1998 Detroit Auto The models included diesel/electric hybrid, gas turbine/electric series fuel cell/electric version and natural gas low emission internal engine version. In addition, this period, GM reorganized electronics divisions (amongst Hughes Electronics and Delco into Delco Propulsion in order to attempt to commercialize technology in niche markets.

non-affiliated companies purchased and drivetrain systems from DPS for conversion purposes.

The new platform was a variant of the EV1, lengthened by 19. design was based on an internal program for a more marketable EV during the proof of concept of the EV1’s development. During the EV1 RD period, focus groups one of the major market limiting of the original EV1 was its two seater configuration. GM the possibility of making the EV1 a four but ultimately determined that the length and weight of the four would reduce vehicle’s limited range to 40–50 — placing the first up electric car’s performance in the pack of aftermarket gas vehicle

Understandably, the company elected to the lighter two seater design.

For and electric vehicles, the battery was upgraded to 44 NiMH cells, in I formation down the centerline, could fully recharge in 2 hours using onboard 220 V charger; additional power were installed in the trunk, complementing the 3rd generation 137 hp AC Induction motor installed in the hood. modifications retained the capability of ZEV propulsion for up to 40 miles (64.4

EV1 CNG

The compressed natural gas (CNG) was the only non-electric vehicle in the even though it employed the up-stretched platform. It used a Suzuki 1.0-liter turbocharged all-aluminum OHC engine installed the hood. Due to the high octane of the CNG (allowing for a greater compression this small engine was to deliver 72 hp at 5500 rpm.

The were replaced with two CNG capable of maximum operating of 3000 psi. The tanks be refueled from a single in only 4 minutes. In-tank shut off the fuel during and engine idle, and a pressure device safeguarded against temperature and pressure.

With the of a continuously variable transmission, the car 0 to 60 mph (96.6 km/h) in 11 seconds. The range was 350 to 400 miles, and fuel was 60 mpg (in gasoline equivalent).

EV1 series

EV1 series hybrid prototype at in Beijing, 1999

The series prototype had a gas turbine engine APU in the trunk. A single-stage, single-shaft, gas turbine unit with a permanent-magnet AC generator was provided by International; it weighed 220 lb (99.8 measured 20 inches (50.8 cm) in by 22 inches (55.9 cm) long and was between 100,000 and 140,000 The turbine could run on a number of alternative fuels, from gasoline to compressed natural

The APU started automatically when the charge dropped below 40% and 40 kW of electrical power, enough to speeds up to 80 mph (128.8 km/h) and to the car’s 44 NiMH cells to a 50% level.

A fuel tank of 6.5 US gal (24.6 L; 5.4 imp gal) and fuel of 60 mpg -US (3.9 L/100 km; 72 mpg -imp ) to 100 mpg -US L/100 km; 120 mpg -imp ) in hybrid depending on the driving conditions, for a highway range of more 390 miles (627.6 km). The car to 0-60 mph (96.6 km/h) in 9

There was also a research that powered the series Gen2 version from engine based generator. The demonstrated the technical feasibility of drivetrain, but concluded that viability was out of reach at that

EV1 parallel hybrid

The parallel variant featured a de-stroked 1.3 L DTI diesel engine (Isuzu L), delivering 75 hp (56 kW), installed in the along with an additional 6.5 hp kW) DC motor/generator; the two motors drove the wheels through an electronically transaxle. When combined the AC induction motor which the front wheels, all three units delivered a total of 219 hp (163 kW), accelerating the car to mph (96.6 km/h) in 7 seconds. A tank of diesel fuel keep the car running for 550 miles km) with a fuel economy of 80 mpg -US L/100 km; 96 mpg -imp ).

A similar is used in the 2005 Opel Diesel Hybrid concept.

EV1 cell

This variant all-electric propulsion capabilities a methanol-powered fuel cell (developed by Daimler-Benz/Ballard for the Mercedes-Benz again installed in the trunk. The consisted of a fuel processor, an and the fuel cell stack. The range was about 300 miles km), with a fuel of 80 mpg -US (2.9 L/100 km; 96 mpg -imp ) (in a equivalent).

The car accelerated to 0-60 mph km/h) in 9 seconds.

Who Killed the Car?

General Motors EV1
General Motors EV1
General Motors EV1
General Motors EV1
General Motors EV1
General Motors EV1
General Motors EV1

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