Environment Energy and Electric Vehicles

5 Июн 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Environment Energy and Electric Vehicles отключены
Great Wall C20R EV

Electric Vehicles, Environment, and

This webpage is about road vehicles (EVs) not yet enabled by technologies that significantly improved over the several years; which strong light-weight carbon composite sheets for a strong and far weight EV body, power high-yield multi-junction photovoltaics can supply onboard power no deep battery discharges so cost is far less, large-diameter rims with springs to and regenerative motors for low rolling low-weight batteries, and low aero for high-speed versions.

It would be and convenient for most errands, a comfortable convenient healthy exercise option, cost nothing to transport its driver, and cargo — and solve global environment and energy

A see-thru image is shown of our low aero-drag commuter EV.

Our lower-speed with taller windows and top surfaces, upright seating, and steering wheel, would be for mail delivery that accelerating and decelerating for less 100 feet traveled. Most of our energy to accelerate can be regenerated decelerating.

Please see detailed and analysis, plus related options and technologies, and reasons why EVs this are not yet available (explained

Another page of my website is to practical infrastructure for dual-mode highway vehicles. Clearly, can provide fast, safe, flexible, portal-to-portal personal at far lower cost than and hybrid electric vehicles now without need for stops at or charging stations. And they could have unlimited on electric highways powered by renewable and sustainable energy, by our flywheel battery. solar, and electric power, as depicted in the left image.

The center is a public transit version, by moving contact with an side-rail, demonstrated in Alameda,

An external view of a personal EV is shown below at right. enabled by advanced high-yield PV Photo-Voltaic solar cells), our tested and proven motors and a carbon fiber composite shell, and our proven power This ultra-light 4-wheel EV is illustrated, and analyzed in this It has onboard batteries, battery PV on the EV’s top, windows, and surfaces for daylight charging and daylight drive power, human-powered recumbent-cycle pedal for drivers who would benefit from physical exercise. It be safe, comfortable, fun and healthy to costing so little that would be free compared to fuel-burning vehicles, and a great all-weather commuter car, would also provide environment and clean energy

It can provide safe, convenient, road travel. and never a to stop at a fuel or charging

Left: A see-through view of a 4-wheel ultra-light EV that 2 plus cargo. PV can be applied on all top which in sunlight can supply 2000 watts for several daily. Thin-film amorphous PV on can also reduce glare and heat load from comparable to conventional tinted or reflective coatings.

Power in this EV can provide variable control and non-conflicting regenerative Side extension connectors, in versions, for possible future highways, are shown in red.

power electronics, its 2 rear are each driven by a brushless motor-in-wheel, a version of the motor in US Patent 4520300. Instead of rigid connection between hub and rim, it has springs between the housing and large-diameter rear rim, and between the front hubs and rims. So unsprung (only its tires and rims) is low, resulting in far less conventional rolling friction and the motor-in-wheel and wheel bearings are from road shock.

EV would weigh less 700 pounds without passengers or Its ultra-efficient motor-wheels provide drive torque and cruise for any speed from zero to It also controls downhill and regenerates power to onboard from decelerating or braking.

pedal power supplied by a in a recumbent position (where we the most power without to a generator (shown in red) can solar power. Effort is selectable, like cardio gym equipment. As can be seen from the near the bottom of this a champion athlete can generate 400 watts almost indefinitely, a fit person 200 watts.

Driven full passenger and cargo in daylight (even without power) from 2000 from this EV’s PV, it travel indefinitely at about 50 mph speed, without discharging batteries. Over the past few PV cost-to-power ratio has declined, and increased.

This EV would be of traveling at speeds over 60 on mostly battery power, by plugging into a garage outlet and by its onboard PV. Battery life is limited to about deep discharge cycles more than several if most long trips are during daylight hours at speeds below 50 mph.

Left: Block diagram of EV with onboard battery charged by ac or dc plug-in sources, in owner’s garage.

Batteries are for regenerative braking, whenever its 2 motor-wheels decelerate the EV.

Solar is also available from amorphous photovoltaics on front and windows and curved surfaces. power can be augmented at any speed, by a powered generator. A second can be included for a passenger who might want the exercise it affords, extending the EV’s range and driving capabilities. Pedal level can be selected by the user. on the user’s fitness level, generator can output up to 1.5 hp (1100 for brief periods and 0.5 hp (370 for over an hour, as can be seen in the below.

Total sustained from 1 generator and the EV’s PV, can average over 2000 So the EV can be driven for several hours in at speeds averaging 50 mph, discharging onboard batteries.

motor and braking effort may be to the two rear wheels, by regenerative motor drive and braking, a friction brake (as a parking and backup mechanical brake). No clutch or gearshift or differential is needed. With 2 large motors in the 2 rear motor-wheels, no reducer is needed.

It can be driven at mph on pedal power only.

solar-powered EVs designed and built by students:

Manta . (photo at was developed and built several ago by MIT students. It’s a good of an EV powered by integral PV, with 1 or 2 batteries to improve acceleration and regenerative braking.

Its PV can provide 800 for several hours, on a sunny for battery charging and drive

Manta . and other cars it, are designed to meet racing Powered by their PV, with no from external power — not even for battery — they are not intended to be cars per se. But they provide evidence of capabilities their PV, light-weight body, and electric can offer.

The onboard solar car at left was developed and built by at the University of Arizona. Its photo is a to their website.

University of at Berkeley engineering students are developing a solar powered EV.

PV has advanced considerably in the past few Along with more power converted to DC electric per unit area of PV, price per is decreasing.

Onboard batteries are in a practical road vehicle the solar/fitness EV, to store power its regenerative motors, provide for high acceleration and speed, and for trips.

Lithium (Li) and (NiMH) batteries store energy per weight than NiMH reliability is high, and Li is

An inner-rotor version of my motor is in US Patent 4085355 Variable-speed Brushless Electric Motor and System and US Patent 4520300 Brushless Regenerative Servomechanism.

It has 99% efficiency, 95% power electronics efficiency, and (with sealed ball bearings protected high loads) practically service life without

A cross-sectional view of this is shown here with labeled..

I built this almost 35 years ago, and test data that it will provide reliable for at least that time It is a type of motor known as because the stator windings are not in laminated iron core

Instead, they are formed to radial segments in an axial field provided by neodymium-iron-boron or magnets. These magnets are in a non-magnetic rotor disk, as aluminum or fiber composite, to the rotor shaft, in a ring with alternating polarities. disk holds an even of magnets, whose fields are with the other disks.

sensors, exposed to the magnetic edge, provide sinusoidal signals in phase with associated stator winding. The windings are formed, then in a thermally conductive epoxy, to the conductors and enhance heat to a flush outside surface the EV.

Two or more phases may be used. A or more poles (equal to the of magnets in a disk) would be for a direct wheel drive.

The speed of our EV’s motor-wheel, over 36-inch diameter is only a few hundred rpm. A motor, at a shaft speed of, 420 rpm, has a 2-phase 70 Hz electrical

The alternating axial magnetic pattern from the rotor rotates with the rotor. stator current varying with rotor position, the field from stator current rotates in synchronism the rotor. So the rotor is not subjected to a magnetic field, and therefore not incur hysteresis or eddy

Left: A photo of our motor-controller-charger A power cord is shown which plugs into 60-Hertz outlets, to supply a charger, that’s packaged the motor controller. Batteries (4 in 12-vdc each) are housed in the plastic tray.

Control generated in the control box shown, to a zero to 6000-rpm speed a zero to maximum torque regenerative brake command over-rides the speed setting, forward/off/reverse direction commands. current is monitored by a minus10ampDC to 10ampDC analog meter, zero center position. voltage is monitored by a zero to analog meter.

Both are shown installed on the controller.

of my motor, over dc motors brush commutators: My motor has no nor their friction and wear; nor spark hazard in explosive nor their dust contamination of environments. It has electromechanical conversion

99%, power electronics

95%, and practically no idling while spinning. It has no rotor and thus needs no flow-through so it can be totally enclosed and non-ventilated. It power when decelerated and even when reversed spinning at top speed.

Reversing any other motor at full results in a very high and may cause damage.

Advantages of our over variable-speed induction with electronic power Our motor is more efficient. Its braking is very stable.

By displayed volts and amps, accelerating and decelerating my motor, and regeneration efficiency can be calculated, no need for a dynamometer load.

A photo of my prototype motor prior to assembly.

Photo motor mounting brackets to 2 fixed aluminum end plates, 2-phase stator windings in slots cut in 5 phenolic rings crossovers at inner and outer of rings, 4 winding terminals on ring, and 2 linear Hall in ring at top of array), black magnets in 5 aluminum rotor iron rotor rings at end (to complete magnetic path for field), the motor’s outer spacer rings, plus and power cord and connector connects to its control electronics).

rings, including iron at each end, have inner shoulders, which are to the rotor shaft when They maintain angular and position of each ring. ball bearings support the shaft at each end.

A few ago, a client and I built and a motor-in-wheel version. We included a planetary gear speed So at a 900 rpm wheel speed, motor is 4500 rpm.

That provides higher power a smaller motor diameter, one coupled directly to the wheel; but it gearing loss and need for lubricant.

Stator winding in the above photo are shown at the stator disk outer An outer-rotor inner-stator version, for our EV has 4 terminals that emerge at the disk inner diameter and are thru its tubular non-rotating

Electronic collision avoidance was about 50 years ago. implementations have been demonstrated, and shown on TV viewed by Since typical car bodies are steel, radar has worked for the eyes of those systems. The EV here, to minimize weight, have a body that’s fiber composites. Ultrasound would be preferable to radar, to them, and steel bodies, in rain and snow.

If rear are used, then either will work, but a compatibility would need to be adopted.

EV Analysis

Let’s consider the representative EV model used in my highway vehicle webpage:

vehicle weight with load = 1500 pounds

of rolling friction = 0.01 (15 drag for 1500 pounds

Aerodynamic drag coefficient = 0.1

area subject to aero = 20 square feet

Peak power = 10 kilowatts (about 15

Battery storage capacity = 3 (battery pack weight


EV may have 10 square meters onboard PV that generates

watts for over 5 hours per PV electronics maximizes power to terminals and prevents over-charge.

I developed the motor shown, 35 years ago, power components were very I used the biggest commercial planar transistors available, were the most cost-effective at time, but still costly. So I an electric contact shift to cost, by connecting motor in series at low speeds and in parallel at speeds.

Although its low-speed torque is its high-speed torque is lower; so its acceleration is less than my with power electronics now available.

Also, EV battery and weight can now be substantially less, new carbon fiber composite forming processes, and chemical having much higher capacity for their weight.

for old and new options are shown below, to show what was possible 35 ago compared to today.

Although my motor had contact shifting, versions do not, because cost power MOSFETs are now This enables high and acceleration at all speeds. So speed vs. can now be considerably higher performance was cost-effective 35 years ago.

from graph below how to reach 60 mph is about 20 seconds contact shifting, and about 10 without it, enabled by higher electronics.

Motor/generator electromechanical efficiency at maximum speed is 99%. Almost all loss in stator conductors. Heat in the motor is by conduction, with no air through the motor.

Power to rolling friction (watts) =

(2 friction coefficient)(Total pounds car car speed)

Power to overcome drag (watts) =

(.005 mph 3 )(drag coefficient)(sq.ft. frontal car speed) 3

Computed results, a vehicle speed of 0 to 60 mph, for EV, are shown in the next two figures.

A graph, of power needed to the sum of rolling friction and aerodynamic at speeds from 0 to 60 mph, for a EV weighing about 1500 with passengers and cargo. At 60 rolling friction consumes 1.5-kw; aero drag 2.5-kw; and they total 4-kw. When weight is to 750 pounds, power for rolling is half this.

Note power on a sunny day of 1500 from the EV’s PV surface, if the power available, would sustained cruising speed of a pound EV on a level grade to 40 mph, without discharging the Added pedal power, an average fit cyclist, can increase speed to 50 mph, without discharge. Pedal power can speed to 55 mph or so, but only for the several that even a very fit may be able to output about

Range of a 1500 pound passengers and cargo) EV at a cruising of 60 mph, requiring 3-kw 3-kwh onboard batteries would be 60 miles. During hours, onboard PV can extend range to about 100 miles at 60 Parked in the sun, its PV can provide a battery charge in about 2 So workers commuting up to 60 miles home, after charging EV batteries over-night from a wall outlet plug, who their EVs in a sunny parking lot 8 can drive their EVs to work and with no need to stop at stations!

This should the electric power utilities who electric power for homes, it helps achieve load for them.

Left: A graph, of car vs. time to reach it, starting zero mph. This EV with its heavy load accelerate, on a level grade, to 60 mph in 20 seconds with contact 10 seconds with now available MOSFET electronics. Onboard batteries could supply the acceleration power. But with 3-kwh onboard energy batteries, this EV’s on battery power would be 35 miles.

When weight, friction, and aero drag are acceleration, speed, and range can be increased.

Battery life is if most trips are made in hours at average speeds 50 mph, because recently multi-junction PV can supply power need to discharge onboard

The considerations presented here, and by the data below, strongly that a lighter weight EV, the ultralight EV described above, is suited to an EV with a human-powered option, as well as providing far accelerations and speeds needed for driving in traffic and on freeways. It be noted that light does not compromise safety, in EVs carbon fiber composite about the same size as fuel-burning cars.

This purchase price would be less than $10,000. If 1500-pound full load EV weight, is driven at 50 mph cruising total power needed is 2-kw (compared to 4-kw for a EV driven at 60 mph). During PV and sustained pedaling (with its benefits) power can sustain

50 mph discharging the onboard EV batteries. hours of darkness, a physically fit can sustain

15 mph from pedal power discharging onboard batteries. data from cyclists is It’s compiled in the next

Note that a champion athlete can output 1.5-hp for seconds, while a physically fit can output about 1-hp.

The can sustain about 0.5-hp for over an hour, while the fit can sustain about 0.25-hp. A wanting to power his vehicle from his or her pedaling will choose to have about light-weight onboard batteries, so the EV also be practical and attractive to using it who may not want physical while driving.

With its speed, range, practical outlet plug-in, under profitable selling price, zero maintenance, safety, and benefits, the EV described here have strong market to athletes plus all who recognize the of physical exercise. This be its early stage niche

It will have strong to devout environmentalists who want a world for their children. it may take some time for the public to understand all its advantages conventional cars, its relatively low to travel in safety and comfort, ample room for luggage, may later a vast general demand. Markets will be global.

Potential sales more than $400 yearly.

This ultra-light-weight (3D CAD image at left) might only 3 kwh onboard battery Its aero drag coefficient be 0.1 (large area, sloped PV and narrow large-diameter tires, achieve this). Its frontal could be 12 square feet a bit less head-room, and a bit more driver sitting position shown in the image at the top of this

With less onboard than other electric there would be more on PV power. Nickel-metal-hydride, lithium-ion and ultracap prices have over the past few years, and may cost even less, and efficiency PV with 2000 output can provide most of EV’s power while or parked in sunlight.

After-dark range, on mainly battery with 3kwh battery would be about 70 miles at 45 mph and 55 miles at 60 mph. This power range is helped by LED head-lights and tail-lights. In daylight, on PV and power only, a fit driver maintain 50 mph, and occasional 70 mph while maintaining peak charge.

With 10-kw motor power, this EV can to 10 mph in 1 second, 30 mph in 3 seconds, and 45 mph in 7 seconds on battery power).

Aero will increase when ventilation is needed, during driver pedal effort. But no problem at speeds up to about 35 mph rolling friction considerably aero drag).

EV top surfaces be covered with multi-junction solar panels. They can about 20 watts/ft 2. Sides and at front and rear would be with thin film photovoltaic that can produce 6 2 when sun shines on them. solar power available daylight hours would be 2000 watts.

EV does not a steel chassis. Its body is a top formed from carbon composite, attached to a bottom formed from aluminum or alloy sheet material. All dissipated mainly in the power batteries, and motor-wheels is conducted the bottom shell which is by air convection. As speeds increase, from losses increases and so does air convection cooling.

Great Wall C20R EV

stuck in traffic, no heat is

Motor efficiency of 99% causes A 1% loss in a 5kw motor is only Controller efficiency is about Heat from its 5% loss needs to be conducted out of the motor power electronics is 250watts.

heat sources are conducted to the bottom shell. Clearly no pump and radiator (common in autos) will be needed in EVs.

One of its 2 motor-wheels is shown in the below, with a wheel removed to show the springs connect the motor to the wheel

Unlike almost all motors, EV’s 2 motor-wheels each about a non-rotating tubular that’s affixed to the EV body. The is shown in red.

The hollow (so 4 conductors and 4 signal conductors can be out for connection to onboard wheel-motor electronics) shaft within the is supported by a body support at each shaft side.

bearings in each wheel-motor also as wheel bearings. The cushion the bearings from shock, far more effectively conventional air-inflated tires. The pair in each wheel are apart than conventional wheels, so their ball incur less force EV side thrust.

So motor-wheel would have longer life without maintenance, to conventional wheels.

Tires can be solid (not with diameters exceeding So never a flat tire or to add air! Unsprung mass is low (only tire and rim).

results in very low power from rolling friction, energy that must be when tires are subjected to bumps is proportional to mass of the tires and rims. In contrast, road vehicles must energy from road in their tires, springs, and absorbers.

Unique new features as this will reduce for maintenance, parts and weight, and EV reliability and efficiency.

Existing EVs a single propulsion motor and drive must include gears that allow one wheel to rotate at a different from the other. Their gears must include an oil and heat radiator, for lubrication and of its 10% power losses. They leak oil and need maintenance.

Our EV has an differential that allows its 2 to rotate at different speeds each other, without gears. So our EV does not incur power losses, oil leaks, or like others.

The see thru below best shows how few are needed to provide all the functions here. Our unique and proven motor-wheel is visible, except for coupling between its tubular and the EV body. Between its 2 motor-wheels can be an enclosure for all the EV power electronics, its battery charger; plus a pack enclosure.

Its 2 seats are relative to the pedal power Above the generator can be seen a wheel for the 2 front wheels, are coupled to the steering mechanism by ball bearings (supported by mounts not visible here).

between driver controls on the wheel and the generator cable to the electronics are also not shown. Nor between the motor-wheels and the power Nor window controls, and a parking brake to the motor-wheels.

Torque for its front wheel steering is small, compared to familiar conventional vehicles with balloon tires. Especially the wheels are not rolling. That’s the tire area that slide on the road is large on other vehicles, and their force is higher than our EV. our EV wheel road contact is very small, and contact is low.

So for front wheels to 45 degree turns in each (about the same limit as 4-wheel vehicles), our EV steering could be limited to 45 degrees in each direction, for practical without power assist.

controls on the steering wheel control speed with braking by a driver’s right position, with cruise activated by a button pushed by the index finger, and deactivated if again. Proportional regenerative control by the driver’s left would over-ride any speed The driver’s left thumb usually not need to contact the control, much like pedals of conventional vehicles are not unless braking action is

Near the steering wheel is a Forward/Off/Reverse 3-way switch. position facilitates safer compared to conventional road with a gear-shift lever that is a distraction to viewing and traffic. A button that a horn on our EV when pushed also be mounted near the wheel center.

A mechanical parking brake would be by pulling a lever, similar to vehicle parking brakes.

All the parts needed in this EV can be at a glance. There is not much than what’s visible except for obvious features a friction-hold parking brake, display, and wiring.

Note of conventional drive shaft, gears, universal joints, — and their need for oil and oil pumps, to lubricate them and their heat. Existing vehicles include fuel-burning generator, and electric propulsion with comparable gears and dissipation of conventional fuel-burning

Safety features, like avoidance electronics that collisions with obstacles by regenerative braking that driver speed settings, and cameras that provide a to drivers that is not normally would be ideal and uniquely with this EV.

Radical? depends on perceptions now mainly by: advertising from auto who have invested hundreds of on factories to produce fuel-burning (they would need new tooling investments to manufacture EV), and who profit from maintenance (compared to this negligible maintenance); plus influence and advertising by big oil-gas now making record profits getting government subsidies and our environment.

Onboard solar is becoming very practical, recently available solar PV provides more power per area, electronics that PV power and protects batteries over-charge, our proven broad-speed-range batteries from various with increasing energy per size and weight, our proven motors configured as motor-wheels, rim large diameter wheels incur far less rolling and a strong light-weight body incurs less air drag .

No combustion engine, drive gear shift, differential universal joints, fuel oil tank, several fluid and pumps, water reservoir and for engine cooling system, engine starter motor, plugs and their 100-kv system, fuel pumps, fan etc.

No fuel or need to stop for it again.

No tail-pipe and smog checks (like in

And no maintenance for all that unreliable in polluting expensive fuel-burning vehicles — including We think this EV would be a far and practical road transportation that is presently not available on our Earth.

This EV’s features and benefits are summarized

Power sources include batteries, charged from household power, integral PV, and regenerative motor braking; driver-powered pedals. Charging would not be needed: Onboard PV would be far more convenient in With an exhaust fan or air conditioner runs on PV power when the are fully charged, a driver return to a parked EV with interior, even with all EV shut on a sunny day.

safety greatly enhanced by carbon fiber composite and crash bars, plus collision avoidance, in a relatively ultra-lightweight body. Instead of doors, entry and exit be facilitated by slide-back doors and windows, plus a telescoping wheel, with regenerative controls mounted on it. Rocky Institute crash tests this type EV ultra-light indicate it’s safer for than conventional auto Also, its collision avoidance would maintain safe between this EV and cars and prevent unsafe lane

And it has no incendiary explosive fuels

No fuel-burning engine, no fuel no radiator or water pump for cooling, no engine oil, no oil no transmission, no drive shaft, gears, or universal joints, no no spark plugs and ignition, no pump, essentially no maintenance no exhaust, no starter motor, no fan and no fuel to buy.

Selling probably under $10,000 high volume production is

Provides convenient care-free all-weather private transit, for a passenger, and parcels.

Mainly for driving, for longer battery But can be driven at normal freeway

Minimal household power during off-peak hours for batteries, no fuel expense, and no for fueling or charging stations.

For miles/year driving, energy savings

$2,000/year (at $4/gal gas over a 20 mi/gal auto.

No tires to repair. No concerns fuel price hikes or

For batteries having 10-year life, typical replacement

$100 per year.

No fuel or tail-pipe emissions.

No incendiary hazard, no fumes, no smog May get preferred parking, insurance, tax etc.

Great health and benefits from its exercise

Redundant drive power with pedal and battery at reduced speed, for non-daylight

Negligible maintenance expense, to conventional road vehicles.

electric highway infrastructure in my webpage listed below, EV range would be virtually .

Any questions about the solar-fitness EV here are most welcome. email fradella@earthlink.net

My other 11 also cover clean technology we developed. They our Broad-speed-range Generator . that can 2x to 10x the regulated DC power energy to existing generators from the wind turbines — in building-integral installations, can generate 100x as much power as size wind turbines/generators on towers. Plus our work on a Flywheel Battery that can long-term power storage/regeneration zero maintenance.

They improve our environment, increase and vehicle safety, lessen dependence on fossil fuels and energy (and their negative consequences), and provide far convenient and reliable UPS (Uninterruptible Supplies). To view them, click on any of the links below.

Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV


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