Environment Energy and Electric Vehicles

5 Июн 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Environment Energy and Electric Vehicles отключены
Great Wall C20R EV

Electric Vehicles, Environment, and Energy

This webpage is about electric road vehicles (EVs) not yet available, enabled by technologies that have significantly improved over the past several years; which include strong light-weight carbon fiber composite sheets for a strong and far lighter weight EV body, power electronics, high-yield multi-junction photovoltaics that can supply onboard power with no deep battery discharges so battery cost is far less, large-diameter wheel rims with springs to hubs and regenerative motors for low rolling friction, low-weight batteries, and low aero drag for high-speed versions.

It would be safe and convenient for most errands, offer a comfortable convenient healthy physical exercise option, cost almost nothing to transport its driver, passengers, and cargo — and solve critical global environment and energy problems.

A see-thru image is shown above, of our low aero-drag commuter EV.

Our lower-speed version, with taller windows and higher top surfaces, upright seating, and right-side steering wheel, would be ideal for mail delivery that requires accelerating and decelerating for less than 100 feet traveled. Most of our EV’s energy to accelerate can be regenerated when decelerating.

Please see detailed descriptions and analysis, plus related compatible options and technologies, and reasons why EVs like this are not yet available (explained below).

Another page of my website is devoted to practical infrastructure for dual-mode electric highway vehicles. Clearly, they can provide fast, safe, convenient, flexible, portal-to-portal personal transportation, at far lower cost than fuel-burning and hybrid electric vehicles now available, without need for stops at fuel or charging stations. And they clearly could have unlimited range on electric highways powered by clean, renewable and sustainable energy, supplied by our flywheel battery. solar, and wind electric power, as depicted below in the left image.

The center photo is a public transit version, powered by moving contact with an electrified side-rail, demonstrated in Alameda, Calif.

An external view of a personal solar-fitness EV is shown below at right. It’s enabled by advanced high-yield PV (onboard Photo-Voltaic solar cells), plus our tested and proven motors and generators, a carbon fiber composite upper shell, and our proven power electronics: This ultra-light 4-wheel EV is described, illustrated, and analyzed in this webpage. It has onboard batteries, battery charger, PV on the EV’s top, windows, and side surfaces for daylight charging and main daylight drive power, plus human-powered recumbent-cycle pedal power for drivers who would benefit greatly from physical exercise. It would be safe, comfortable, fun and healthy to drive, costing so little that trips would be free compared to today’s fuel-burning vehicles, and a great low-cost all-weather commuter car, that would also provide phenomenal environment and clean energy benefits.

It can provide safe, convenient, low-cost road travel. and never a need to stop at a fuel or charging station.

Left: A see-through view of a personal, 4-wheel ultra-light EV that seats 2 plus cargo. PV can be applied on all top surfaces, which in sunlight can supply about 2000 watts for several hours daily. Thin-film amorphous PV on windows can also reduce glare and interior heat load from sunlight, comparable to conventional tinted glass or reflective coatings.

Power electronics in this EV can provide variable speed control and non-conflicting regenerative braking. Side extension connectors, in later versions, for possible future electric highways, are shown in red.

With power electronics, its 2 rear wheels are each driven by a brushless regenerative motor-in-wheel, a version of the motor described in US Patent 4520300. Instead of conventional rigid connection between hub and tire rim, it has springs between the motor housing and large-diameter rear wheel rim, and between the front wheel hubs and rims. So unsprung mass (only its tires and rims) is very low, resulting in far less than conventional rolling friction loss, and the motor-in-wheel and wheel bearings are cushioned from road shock.

This EV would weigh less than 700 pounds without passengers or cargo. Its ultra-efficient motor-wheels provide gearless drive torque and cruise control for any speed from zero to maximum. It also controls downhill speed, and regenerates power to onboard batteries, from decelerating or braking.

Optional pedal power supplied by a driver in a recumbent position (where we output the most power without tiring) to a generator (shown in red) can augment solar power. Effort level is selectable, like cardio workout gym equipment. As can be seen from the graphs near the bottom of this page, a champion athlete can generate about 400 watts almost indefinitely, a physically fit person 200 watts.

Driven with full passenger and cargo load in daylight (even without pedal power) from 2000 watts from this EV’s PV, it could travel indefinitely at about 50 mph average speed, without discharging onboard batteries. Over the past few years, PV cost-to-power ratio has declined, and power-to-area increased.

This EV would be capable of traveling at speeds over 60 mph, on mostly battery power, recharged by plugging into a garage power outlet and by its onboard PV. Battery service life is limited to about 1000 deep discharge cycles — more than several years if most long trips are made during daylight hours at average speeds below 50 mph.

Left: Block diagram of ultra-light EV with onboard battery power, charged by ac or dc plug-in sources, probably in owner’s garage.

Batteries are essential for regenerative braking, whenever its 2 brushless motor-wheels decelerate the EV.

Solar power is also available from thin-film amorphous photovoltaics on front and rear windows and curved surfaces. Also, power can be augmented at any speed, by a pedal powered generator. A second generator can be included for a passenger who might also want the exercise it affords, while extending the EV’s range and night driving capabilities. Pedal effort level can be selected by the user. Depending on the user’s fitness level, each generator can output up to 1.5 hp (1100 watts) for brief periods and 0.5 hp (370 watts) for over an hour, as can be seen in the graph below.

Total sustained power, from 1 generator and the EV’s PV, can thus average over 2000 watts. So the EV can be driven for several hours in sunlight at speeds averaging 50 mph, without discharging onboard batteries.

Main motor and braking effort may be applied to the two rear wheels, by regenerative bi-directional motor drive and braking, plus a friction brake (as a parking brake, and backup mechanical brake). No motor clutch or gearshift or differential gear is needed. With 2 large diameter motors in the 2 rear motor-wheels, no speed reducer is needed.

It can be driven at 0-15 mph on pedal power only.


Some solar-powered EVs designed and built by engineering students:

Manta . (photo at left) was developed and built several years ago by MIT students. It’s a good example of an EV powered by integral PV, with 1 or 2 onboard batteries to improve acceleration and enable regenerative braking.

Its PV can provide 800 watts, for several hours, on a sunny day, for battery charging and drive power.

Manta . and other cars like it, are designed to meet racing rules. Powered by their PV, with no help from external power sources — not even for battery charging — they are not intended to be commuter cars per se. But they provide tangible evidence of capabilities their PV, aerodynamics, light-weight body, and electric motor can offer.

The onboard solar powered car at left was developed and built by students at the University of Arizona. Its photo is a link to their website.

University of California at Berkeley engineering students are also developing a solar powered EV.

PV technology has advanced considerably in the past few years: Along with more solar power converted to DC electric power per unit area of PV, price per watt is decreasing.

Onboard batteries are essential in a practical road vehicle like the solar/fitness EV, to store power from its regenerative motors, provide power for high acceleration and speed, and for night-time trips.

Lithium (Li) and Nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries store more energy per weight than others. NiMH reliability is high, and Li is improving.

An inner-rotor version of my motor is described in US Patent 4085355 Variable-speed Regenerative Brushless Electric Motor and Controller System and US Patent 4520300 Ultra-efficient Brushless Regenerative Servomechanism.

It has 99% motor efficiency, 95% power electronics controller efficiency, and (with sealed lubricated ball bearings protected from high loads) practically unlimited service life without maintenance.

A cross-sectional view of this motor is shown here with parts labeled..

I built this version almost 35 years ago, and have test data that shows it will provide reliable service for at least that time span. It is a type of motor known as coreless, because the stator windings are not placed in laminated iron core slots.

Instead, they are formed to have radial segments in an axial magnetic field provided by neodymium-iron-boron or ferrite magnets. These magnets are placed in a non-magnetic rotor disk, such as aluminum or fiber composite, attached to the rotor shaft, in a ring array, with alternating polarities. Each disk holds an even number of magnets, whose fields are aligned with the other disks.

Hall sensors, exposed to the magnetic field edge, provide sinusoidal feedback signals in phase with their associated stator winding. The stator windings are formed, then embedded in a thermally conductive epoxy, to support the conductors and enhance heat transfer to a flush outside surface beneath the EV.

Two or more phases may be used. A dozen or more poles (equal to the number of magnets in a disk) would be best for a direct wheel drive.

The maximum speed of our EV’s motor-wheel, with over 36-inch diameter tires, is only a few hundred rpm. A 20-pole motor, at a shaft speed of, say, 420 rpm, has a 2-phase 70 Hz electrical frequency.

The alternating axial magnetic field pattern from the rotor magnets rotates with the rotor. With stator current varying sinusoidally with rotor position, the magnetic field from stator winding current rotates in synchronism with the rotor. So the rotor is not subjected to a varying magnetic field, and therefore does not incur hysteresis or eddy loss.

Left: A photo of our motor-controller-charger prototype/demo. A power cord is shown here, which plugs into 115-volt 60-Hertz outlets, to supply a battery charger, that’s packaged with the motor controller. Batteries (4 in series, 12-vdc each) are housed in the covered plastic tray.

Control signals, generated in the control box shown, respond to a zero to 6000-rpm speed setting, a zero to maximum torque proportional regenerative brake command which over-rides the speed setting, plus forward/off/reverse direction commands. Battery current is monitored by a minus10ampDC to plus 10ampDC analog meter, with zero center position. Battery voltage is monitored by a zero to 100voltDC analog meter.

Both meters are shown installed on the controller.

Advantages of my motor, over dc motors with brush commutators: My motor has no brushes; nor their friction and wear; nor their spark hazard in explosive environments; nor their dust contamination of clean environments. It has electromechanical conversion efficiency

99%, power electronics efficiency

95%, and practically no idling losses while spinning. It has no rotor heating; and thus needs no flow-through air; so it can be totally enclosed and non-ventilated. It regenerates power when decelerated — and even when reversed while spinning at top speed.

Reversing almost any other motor at full speed results in a very high current, and may cause damage.

Advantages of our motor, over variable-speed induction motors with electronic power control: Our motor is more efficient. Its regenerative braking is very stable.

By timing displayed volts and amps, while accelerating and decelerating my motor, drive and regeneration efficiency can be calculated, with no need for a dynamometer load.

Left: A photo of my prototype motor parts prior to assembly.

Photo includes motor mounting brackets attached to 2 fixed aluminum end plates, black 2-phase stator windings in radial slots cut in 5 phenolic rings (note crossovers at inner and outer diameters of rings, 4 winding terminals on each ring, and 2 linear Hall sensors in ring at top of array), black cylindrical magnets in 5 aluminum rotor rings, iron rotor rings at each end (to complete magnetic path for axial field), the motor’s outer aluminum spacer rings, plus signal and power cord and connector (which connects to its control electronics).

Rotor rings, including iron rings at each end, have keyed inner shoulders, which are attached to the rotor shaft when assembled. They maintain angular and axial position of each ring. Self-aligning ball bearings support the motor shaft at each end.

A few years ago, a client and I built and tested a motor-in-wheel version. We included a 5-to-1 planetary gear speed reducer. So at a 900 rpm wheel speed, motor speed is 4500 rpm.

That version provides higher power with a smaller motor diameter, than one coupled directly to the wheel; but it incurs gearing loss and need for gear lubricant.

Stator winding terminals in the above photo are shown emerging at the stator disk outer diameter. An outer-rotor inner-stator version, for our EV motor-wheels, has 4 terminals that emerge at the stator disk inner diameter and are accessed thru its tubular non-rotating shaft.

Electronic collision avoidance was developed about 50 years ago. Various implementations have been successfully demonstrated, and shown on TV viewed by millions. Since typical car bodies are mostly steel, radar has worked well for the eyes of those systems. The EV proposed here, to minimize weight, would have a body that’s mostly fiber composites. Ultrasound eyes would be preferable to radar, to detect them, and steel bodies, even in rain and snow.

If rear transponders are used, then either implementation will work, but a compatibility standard would need to be adopted.

EV Performance Analysis

Let’s consider the same representative EV model used in my electric highway vehicle webpage:

Gross vehicle weight with full load = 1500 pounds

Coefficient of rolling friction = 0.01 (15 pounds drag for 1500 pounds weight)

Aerodynamic drag coefficient = 0.1

Frontal area subject to aero drag = 20 square feet

Peak motor power = 10 kilowatts (about 15 horsepower)

Battery storage capacity = 3 kilowatt-hours (battery pack weight

150 pounds)

EV may have 10 square meters integral onboard PV that generates

2000 watts for over 5 hours per day. PV electronics maximizes power to battery terminals and prevents over-charge.

When I developed the motor shown, over 35 years ago, power electronics components were very expensive. I used the biggest commercial grade planar transistors available, which were the most cost-effective at that time, but still costly. So I developed an electric contact shift to mitigate cost, by connecting motor windings in series at low speeds and in parallel at high speeds.

Although its low-speed torque is higher, its high-speed torque is lower; so its high-speed acceleration is less than my motor with power electronics components now available.

Also, EV battery and body weight can now be substantially less, with new carbon fiber composite sheet forming processes, and chemical batteries having much higher energy capacity for their weight.

Calculations for old and new options are shown below, mainly to show what was possible 35 years ago compared to today.

Although my first motor had contact shifting, newer versions do not, because lower cost power MOSFETs are now available. This enables high torque and acceleration at all speeds. So speed vs. time can now be considerably higher performance than was cost-effective 35 years ago.

Note from graph below how time to reach 60 mph is about 20 seconds with contact shifting, and about 10 seconds without it, enabled by higher power electronics.

Motor/generator electromechanical conversion efficiency at maximum speed is about 99%. Almost all loss occurs in stator conductors. Heat transfer in the motor is by conduction, with no air flow through the motor.

Power to overcome rolling friction (watts) =

(2 watts/mph.lb.)(Rolling friction coefficient)(Total pounds car weight)(mph car speed)

Power to overcome aerodynamic drag (watts) =

(.005 watts/sq.ft. mph 3 )(drag coefficient)(sq.ft. frontal area)(mph car speed) 3

Computed results, over a vehicle speed of 0 to 60 mph, for this EV, are shown in the next two figures.

Left: A graph, of power needed to overcome the sum of rolling friction and aerodynamic drag, at speeds from 0 to 60 mph, for a representative EV weighing about 1500 pounds with passengers and cargo. At 60 mph, rolling friction consumes about 1.5-kw; aero drag about 2.5-kw; and they total about 4-kw. When weight is reduced to 750 pounds, power for rolling friction is half this.

Note that power on a sunny day of 1500 watts, from the EV’s PV surface, if the only power available, would support sustained cruising speed of a 1500 pound EV on a level grade to about 40 mph, without discharging the batteries. Added pedal power, from an average fit cyclist, can increase continuous speed to 50 mph, without battery discharge. Pedal power can increase speed to 55 mph or so, but only for the several seconds that even a very fit cyclist may be able to output about 1-kw.

Range of a 1500 pound (including passengers and cargo) EV at a cruising speed of 60 mph, requiring 3-kw from 3-kwh onboard batteries only, would be 60 miles. During daylight hours, onboard PV can extend driving range to about 100 miles at 60 mph. Parked in the sun, its PV can provide a full battery charge in about 2 hours. So workers commuting up to 60 miles from home, after charging their EV batteries over-night from a 300-watt wall outlet plug, who leave their EVs in a sunny parking lot 8 hours, can drive their EVs to work and back with no need to stop at charging stations!

This should please the electric power utilities who provide electric power for homes, because it helps achieve load leveling for them.

Left: A graph, of car speed vs. time to reach it, starting from zero mph. This 1500-pound EV with its heavy load would accelerate, on a level grade, to 60 mph in about 20 seconds with contact shifting, 10 seconds with now available power MOSFET electronics. Onboard chemical batteries could supply the 20-kw acceleration power. But with only 3-kwh onboard energy storage batteries, this EV’s range on battery power would be only 35 miles.

When weight, rolling friction, and aero drag are reduced, acceleration, speed, and range can be accordingly increased.

Battery life is longer if most trips are made in daylight hours at average speeds under 50 mph, because recently developed multi-junction PV can supply power without need to discharge onboard batteries..

The considerations presented here, and by the cyclist data below, strongly indicate that a lighter weight EV, like the ultralight EV described above, is better suited to an EV with a human-powered pedal option, as well as providing far higher accelerations and speeds needed for safe driving in traffic and on freeways. It should be noted that light weight does not compromise safety, in EVs with carbon fiber composite bodies about the same size as conventional fuel-burning cars.

This EV’s purchase price would probably be less than $10,000. If it’s 1500-pound full load total EV weight, is driven at 50 mph cruising speed, total power needed is under 2-kw (compared to 4-kw for a 1500-pound EV driven at 60 mph). During daylight, PV and sustained pedaling (with its health benefits) power can sustain

50 mph without discharging the onboard EV batteries. During hours of darkness, a physically fit driver can sustain

15 mph from pedal power without discharging onboard batteries. Considerable data from cyclists is available. It’s compiled in the next chart:

Note that a champion 160-pound athlete can output 1.5-hp for several seconds, while a physically fit person can output about 1-hp.

The athlete can sustain about 0.5-hp for well over an hour, while the fit person can sustain about 0.25-hp. A driver wanting to power his vehicle more from his or her pedaling will probably choose to have about 3-kwh light-weight onboard batteries, so the EV would also be practical and attractive to others using it who may not want physical exercise while driving.

With its acceleration, speed, range, practical wall outlet plug-in, under $10,000 profitable selling price, practically zero maintenance, safety, and health benefits, the EV described here will have strong market appeal to athletes plus all who recognize the benefits of physical exercise. This will be its early stage niche market.

It will have strong appeal to devout environmentalists who want a better world for their children. Although it may take some time for the general public to understand all its advantages over conventional cars, its relatively low cost to travel in safety and comfort, with ample room for luggage, may create later a vast general market demand. Markets will certainly be global.

Potential sales total more than $400 Billion yearly.

This ultra-light-weight fitness-EV (3D CAD image at left) might have only 3 kwh onboard battery capacity. Its aero drag coefficient could be 0.1 (large area, sloped PV windows, and narrow large-diameter tires, help achieve this). Its frontal area could be 12 square feet (with a bit less head-room, and a bit more recumbent driver sitting position than shown in the image at the top of this page).

With less onboard batteries than other electric vehicles, there would be more dependence on PV power. Nickel-metal-hydride, lithium-ion batteries, and ultracap prices have declined over the past few years, and may soon cost even less, and higher efficiency PV with 2000 watts output can provide most of this EV’s power while driving or parked in sunlight.

After-dark cruising range, on mainly battery power, with 3kwh battery capacity, would be about 70 miles at 45 mph — and 55 miles at 60 mph. This battery power range is helped by ultra-efficient LED head-lights and tail-lights. In daylight, on PV and pedal power only, a fit driver could maintain 50 mph, and occasional 70 mph bursts while maintaining peak battery charge.

With 10-kw peak motor power, this EV can accelerate to 10 mph in 1 second, 30 mph in 3 seconds, and 45 mph in 7 seconds (mostly on battery power).

Aero drag will increase when interior ventilation is needed, during high driver pedal effort. But that’s no problem at speeds up to about 35 mph (where rolling friction considerably exceeds aero drag).

EV top surfaces would be covered with multi-junction photo-voltaic solar panels. They can produce about 20 watts/ft 2. Sides and windows at front and rear would be coated with thin film amorphous photovoltaic that can produce 6 watts/ft 2 when sun shines on them. Total solar power available during daylight hours would be about 2000 watts.

EV does not have a steel chassis. Its body is a top shell formed from carbon fiber composite, attached to a bottom shell formed from aluminum or aluminum-magnesium alloy sheet material. All heat dissipated mainly in the power electronics, batteries, and motor-wheels is conducted thru the bottom shell which is cooled by air convection. As speeds increase, heating from losses increases accordingly, and so does air convection cooling.

Great Wall C20R EV

When stuck in traffic, no heat is generated.

Motor efficiency of 99% causes heat. A 1% loss in a 5kw motor is only 50watts. Controller efficiency is about 95%. Heat from its 5% loss that needs to be conducted out of the motor control power electronics is 250watts.

Both heat sources are conducted to the EV’s bottom shell. Clearly no water pump and radiator (common in conventional autos) will be needed in these EVs.

One of its 2 motor-wheels is shown in the illustration below, with a wheel cover removed to show the springs that connect the motor to the wheel rim.

Unlike almost all motors, this EV’s 2 motor-wheels each spin about a non-rotating tubular shaft that’s affixed to the EV body. The motor is shown in red.

The hollow (so 4 power conductors and 4 signal conductors can be brought out for connection to onboard wheel-motor control electronics) shaft within the motor is supported by a body support structure at each shaft side.

Ball bearings in each wheel-motor serve also as wheel bearings. The springs cushion the bearings from road shock, far more effectively than conventional air-inflated tires. The bearing pair in each wheel are further apart than conventional auto wheels, so their ball bearings incur less force from EV side thrust.

So motor-wheel bearings would have longer service life without maintenance, compared to conventional wheels.

Tires can be solid (not inflated) with diameters exceeding 3ft. So never a flat tire or need to add air! Unsprung mass is very low (only tire and rim).

This results in very low power loss from rolling friction, since energy that must be dissipated when tires are subjected to road bumps is proportional to mass of only the tires and rims. In contrast, conventional road vehicles must dissipate energy from road bumps in their tires, springs, and shock absorbers.

Unique new features such as this will reduce need for maintenance, parts and weight, and increase EV reliability and efficiency.

Existing EVs with a single propulsion motor and 2-wheel drive must include differential gears that allow one driven wheel to rotate at a different speed from the other. Their differential gears must include an oil pump and heat radiator, for lubrication and dissipation of its 10% power losses. They also leak oil and need maintenance.

Our EV has an electronic differential that allows its 2 motor-wheels to rotate at different speeds from each other, without differential gears. So our EV does not incur gear power losses, oil leaks, or maintenance like others.

The see thru image below best shows how few parts are needed to provide all the functions described here. Our unique and proven rear motor-wheel is visible, except for straightforward coupling between its tubular shaft and the EV body. Between its 2 motor-wheels can be seen an enclosure for all the EV power electronics, including its battery charger; plus a battery pack enclosure.

Its 2 seats are shown relative to the pedal power generator. Above the generator can be seen a steering wheel for the 2 front wheels, which are coupled to the steering mechanism shown by ball bearings (supported by swivel mounts not visible here).

Cabling between driver controls on the steering wheel and the generator cable to the power electronics are also not shown. Nor cables between the motor-wheels and the power electronics. Nor window controls, and a parking (friction) brake to the motor-wheels.

Torque needed for its front wheel steering is relatively small, compared to familiar heavy conventional vehicles with wide balloon tires. Especially when the wheels are not rolling. That’s because the tire area that must slide on the road is large on those other vehicles, and their contact force is higher than our EV. Conversely our EV wheel road contact area is very small, and contact force is low.

So for front wheels limited to 45 degree turns in each direction (about the same limit as conventional 4-wheel vehicles), our EV steering wheel could be limited to 45 degrees rotation in each direction, for practical steering without power assist.

Motor controls on the steering wheel could control speed with regenerative braking by a driver’s right thumb position, with cruise control activated by a button pushed by the right index finger, and deactivated if pushed again. Proportional regenerative braking control by the driver’s left thumb would over-ride any speed setting. The driver’s left thumb would usually not need to contact the brake control, much like brake pedals of conventional vehicles are not contacted unless braking action is desired.

Near the steering wheel center is a Forward/Off/Reverse 3-way switch. This position facilitates safer driving, compared to conventional road vehicles with a gear-shift lever position that is a distraction to viewing road and traffic. A button that sounds a horn on our EV when pushed could also be mounted near the steering wheel center.

A mechanical hold parking brake would be engaged by pulling a lever, similar to conventional vehicle parking brakes.

All the unique parts needed in this EV can be seen at a glance. There is not much more than what’s visible here, except for obvious features like a friction-hold parking brake, meter display, and wiring.

Note absence of conventional drive shaft, differential gears, universal joints, etc. — and their need for oil reservoirs and oil pumps, to lubricate them and dissipate their heat. Existing hybrid vehicles include fuel-burning engine, generator, and electric propulsion — with comparable gears and power dissipation of conventional fuel-burning autos.

Safety features, like collision avoidance electronics that prevents collisions with obstacles ahead by regenerative braking that over-rides driver speed settings, and rear cameras that provide a view to drivers that is not normally visible, would be ideal and uniquely compatible with this EV.

Radical? That depends on perceptions now mainly influenced by: advertising from auto manufacturers, who have invested hundreds of $Billions on factories to produce fuel-burning vehicles (they would need new factory tooling investments to manufacture this EV), and who profit from after-sales maintenance (compared to this EV’s negligible maintenance); plus political influence and advertising by big oil-gas companies now making record profits while getting government subsidies and polluting our environment.

Onboard solar power is becoming very practical, with recently available solar PV that provides more power per surface area, electronics that maximizes PV power and protects batteries from over-charge, our proven broad-speed-range generators, batteries from various sources with increasing energy storage per size and weight, our proven regenerative motors configured as motor-wheels, sprung rim large diameter wheels that incur far less rolling friction, and a strong light-weight body that incurs less air drag .

No combustion engine, drive shaft, gear shift, differential gears, universal joints, fuel tank, oil tank, several fluid containers and pumps, water reservoir and radiator for engine cooling system, exhaust, engine starter motor, spark plugs and their 100-kv ignition system, fuel pumps, fan belts, etc.

No fuel or need to ever stop for it again.

No tail-pipe pollutants and smog checks (like in California).

And no maintenance for all that unreliable junk in polluting expensive fuel-burning road vehicles — including hybrids. We think this EV would be a far preferable and practical road transportation option that is presently not available anywhere on our Earth.

This EV’s main features and benefits are summarized below:

Power sources include onboard batteries, charged from plug-in household power, integral onboard PV, and regenerative motor braking; plus driver-powered pedals. Charging stations would not be needed: Onboard PV charging would be far more convenient in daylight. With an exhaust fan or air conditioner that runs on PV power when the batteries are fully charged, a driver could return to a parked EV with cool interior, even with all EV windows shut on a sunny day.

Occupant safety greatly enhanced by all-around carbon fiber composite sheets and crash bars, plus electronic collision avoidance, in a relatively large ultra-lightweight body. Instead of swing-out doors, entry and exit could be facilitated by slide-back doors and slide-down windows, plus a telescoping steering wheel, with regenerative motor controls mounted on it. Rocky Mountain Institute crash tests with this type EV ultra-light body indicate it’s safer for occupants than conventional auto bodies. Also, its collision avoidance electronics would maintain safe distance between this EV and cars ahead, and prevent unsafe lane changes.

And it has no incendiary explosive fuels onboard.

No fuel-burning engine, no fuel tank, no radiator or water pump for engine cooling, no engine oil, no oil tank, no transmission, no drive shaft, differential gears, or universal joints, no clutch, no spark plugs and ignition, no fuel pump, essentially no maintenance expense, no exhaust, no starter motor, no fan belts, and no fuel to buy.

Selling price probably under $10,000 when high volume production is reached.

Provides convenient care-free portal-to-portal all-weather private transit, for a driver, passenger, and parcels.

Mainly for non-freeway driving, for longer battery life. But can be driven at normal freeway speeds.

Minimal household power increase during off-peak hours for charging batteries, no fuel expense, and no need for fueling or charging stations.

For 10,000 miles/year driving, energy cost savings

$2,000/year (at $4/gal gas prices) over a 20 mi/gal auto.

No flat tires to repair. No concerns about fuel price hikes or shortages.

For batteries having 10-year service life, typical replacement cost

$100 per year.

No fuel pollution or tail-pipe emissions.

No incendiary fuel hazard, no fumes, no smog checks. May get preferred parking, insurance, tax incentives, etc.

Great health and fitness benefits from its exercise option.

Redundant drive power means, with pedal and battery power at reduced speed, for non-daylight errands.

Negligible maintenance expense, compared to conventional road vehicles.

With electric highway infrastructure described in my webpage listed below, EV driving range would be virtually unlimited .

Any questions about the solar-fitness EV shown here are most welcome. Please email fradella@earthlink.net

My other 11 webpages also cover clean sustainable technology we developed. They describe our Broad-speed-range Generator . that can output 2x to 10x the regulated DC power energy compared to existing generators from the same wind turbines — and, in building-integral installations, can generate over 100x as much power as comparable size wind turbines/generators mounted on towers. Plus our work on a Minimal-loss Flywheel Battery that can provide long-term power storage/regeneration with zero maintenance.

They would improve our environment, increase building and vehicle safety, lessen global dependence on fossil fuels and nuclear energy (and their serious negative consequences), and provide far more convenient and reliable UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supplies). To view them, please click on any of the links below.

Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV
Great Wall C20R EV

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