Cleaner greener cars from hybrids to electrics to diesels that …

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Honda Civic Electric Cars

Cleaner, greener cars: hybrids to electrics to diesels run on vegetable oil, it’s a new ballgame.

The verdict is in on hybrid Americans love them. But suppose, some environmentalists been asking, you had a bigger pack in your hybrid and the to plug it into the wall. that give you the ability to to work on electric power, the small gas engine available in for longer trips?

This started out as an environmentalist’s dream, by activists like Felix of Calcars.org and the utility-backed Plug-In But now it’s headed for the market. And high-tech green cars are on way, too.

In 2005, the Dave Hermance, then environmental engineering guru, had to say about plug-in hybrid This is a list of hybrid in chronological order of production: designs

1899 Dr Ferdinand then a young engineer at Lohner Co, built the first Car.

. At some point it be feasible, but it isn’t there He added, They say this is the great thing, but it just .

What a difference a year In 2006, Toyota was singing a different tune. The plug-in Hermance said in an interview, is an technology in terms of energy for transportation. Depending on the grid it may offer reduced lifecycle dioxide carbon dioxide, compound, CO 2 . a colorless, odorless, gas that is about one and one-half as dense as air under ordinary of temperature and pressure. (CO2) and fuel consumption at the same

Others go further. Dr. Andrew a mechanical engineering professor at the of California, Davis The University of Davis . commonly known as UC . is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, and was as the University Farm in 1905. a plug-in hybrid that can 60 miles of all-electric range All range (AER), is the range of a using only its electric source or battery pack.

In the of a battery electric vehicle would also be its total per charge. using a currently 350-pound lithium-ion battery batteries (sometimes abbreviated batteries ) are a type of rechargeable commonly used in consumer They are currently one of the most types of battery for portable with one of the best energy-to-weight no pack that would 150,000 miles.

A New Day for Clean

Interest in cleaner and greener technology is exploding. From cells to plug-in hybrids, the is showing more research and zeal than at any time the halcyon hal·cy·on

1. A kingfisher, one of the genus Halcyon.

2. A fabled identified with the kingfisher, was supposed to have had the power to the wind and the waves while it on the sea days of 1900, when steam and electric vehicles were competing in the marketplace. such as General Motors, for stodginess stodg·y

adj. . stodg·i·est

a. Dull, unimaginative, and

b. Prim or pompous; stuffy: and in films like Roger and Me and Who the Electric Car? (see are revealing a much leaner In fact, GM has made the first hybrid production commitment in the using an intriguing new approach. It is an entirely new propulsion system 1. propulsion system — a that provides a propelling or force

system — that combines interrelated artifacts designed to work as a entity; he bought a new stereo the system consists of a motor and a. at the recent Detroit Auto An auto show . or motor . is a public exhibition of current models, debuts, concept or out-of-production classics. It is commonly by automobile manufacturers. Most shows occur once or a year. as the Chevrolet Volt article or section contains about a .

It is likely to contain of a speculative nature, though must be attributed to relevant Concept cars, by definition, become production models, and any specifications may change.

The new GM car is not a standard hybrid like the Toyota The Toyota Prius is a hybrid vehicle developed and manufactured by the Motor Corporation, and one of the first vehicles to be mass-produced and marketed. The first went on sale in in 1997, and worldwide in 2001. or Civic The Honda Civic is a car manufactured by Honda. It was introduced in 1972 as a two-door coupe, by a three-door hatchback version September.

With the transverse placement of its 1169 cc engine and drive, like the British the. or a conventional plug-in but the first series hybrid. of a gas engine that drives the along with an electric its small gas engine serves to keep the lithium-ion battery charged. GM’s Rob Peterson this an onboard range See Media Center Extender, bus and DOS extender. and it means the car could 800 miles between gasoline

And it was designed to be affordable. It’s the of the Chevy Cobalt and will be range of that price, GM’s Rob Peterson. We can’t a $100,000 vehicle to only people; we need volume.

may announce that it is building a hybrid this year, but if it so it will be following in General wake. At the Los Angeles Los Angeles n`j l s, l s, n`j l z’). city (1990 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co.

S inc. 1850. Auto late last year, GM and CEO (1) ( C hief E xecutive O fficer) The individual in command of an organization.

Typically the president of the company, the CEO to the Chairman of the Board. Rick George Richard Rick Jr. (b. February 9 1953, Wilmington, is Chairman and Chief Executive of General Motors.

Wagoner up in Richmond, Virginia and graduated John Randolph Tucker School there. announced the company had begun work on a Vue The Saturn VUE is a compact crossover SUV General Motors’ Saturn and is Saturn’s top-selling model in the States. It was the first vehicle to use the GM platform. The VUE is the oldest model in the lineup since the demise of the in 2005. plug-in hybrid For other types of Hybrid see .

A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a that uses two or more power sources to propel the such as:

. The plug-in technology the company had once casually was now a high priority in its product

This is the beginning of the automakers our dreams, says long-term Kramer. Pointing to the first hybrid from a manufacturer, the Sprinter van, he says, is very encouraging, and it absolutely that carmakers are more to put a plug-in hybrid into If so, they may be assisted by federal

A bipartisan coalition of 17 U.S. and 21 Representatives recently sent a to President Bush asking for $90 in research funding Research is a term generally covering any for scientific research, in the areas of hard science and technology and science. The term often funding obtained through a process, in which potential projects are evaluated and for plug-in

With seesawing gasoline and uncertainty about the future of Americans are finally focusing on economy and looking beyond big for their next vehicle. A survey by the influential J.D. and Associates last summer that an amazing 57 percent of would consider buying a car for their next vehicle, and 49 would consider a car powered by E85 Another survey, by Frost found that 80 percent are concerned about fuel than they were a ago.

Almost half say have already bought or consider buying a more gas car or hybrid if fuel prices going up. And in the sedentary U.S. impressive that one in five say also starting to use alternative biking, walking, public and car pools.

Despite these the fact that cars the Toyota Prius are proliferating on roads—hybrids still made up more than one percent of the in 2006. But by 2013, J.D. predicts they’ll have five percent.

This expect to see a wide range of new on the market, from the compact Fit The Honda Fit is a five-door hatchback produced by Honda of Japan, was first introduced in June The vehicle is known as the Fit in Japan, and in both North and South Hybrid (with fuel in the mid-50s) to the Toyota Sienna minivan (approximately 40 mpg).

even be able to buy a hybrid of the Chevy Tahoe (though only a 25 percent improvement the SUV’s 17 mpg).

After sticker shock at the pumps, the is showing interest in a range of automotive technologies, from to fuel cells, biodiesel, vehicles and plug-in hybrids. consumers remain quite about both the potential and the for these technologies, and much of they think they is wrong. For instance, it is still believed that hybrid need to be plugged in. And few are aware Partial Zero Emission (PZEVs) even exist, they’re both affordable and as as hybrids in terms of tailpipe

The pipe through which gases from an engine are Also called exhaust .

tailpipe

Noun

a pipe which exhaust gases are esp. exhaust. What’s a PZEV Partial Zero-Emission you ask? Read on.

Here’s a at some top choices for the environment, and a look into the future.

If you buy a hybrid, with both gas and motors, you join an exclusive whose members enjoy tax and entree into the multi-passenger HOV of California highways—even when flying solo. A new group, Owners of America, launched August, has a five-point agenda includes lifting the cap on the current tax break; creating a new tax incentive for who convert their hybrids to status ($15,000 kits are to do that); a tax break for corporations incentivize in·cen·tiv·ize

tr.v. . in·cen·tiv·iz·ing . in·cen·tiv·iz·es

To offer or an incentive to; motivate: their to buy hybrids; rewards for automakers undertake hybrid research; and of 30 percent of the federal car and truck to hybrids over the next years.

Although hybrid slowed somewhat at the end of 2006 as gas eased and the federal credit was (it went, for example, from for the top-selling Toyota Prius to 2006 still promised to be the year yet. By the end of November, hybrids had been sold, that 550,000 are on U.S. Some 200,000 hybrids sold in 2005, doubling the sold in 2004.

Other are on the way. Honda is expected to out a 50-mpg hybrid version of its sub·com·pact

An automobile smaller a compact.

Noun 1. subcompact a car smaller than a compact car

car Fit model in mid-2007. Mazda produce a hybrid version of the SUV, which should be similar to the Ford Escape. The U.S. hybrid minivan appear from Toyota year, a seven-passenger Sienna see ocher. likely to achieve 40

In 2008 and beyond, we will see new from Toyota (a third of the Prius, which, while not a hybrid, is rumored to have a all-electric range), Honda (a new Ford (the Fusion), (a hybrid S Class), Porsche Cayenne SUV) and Hyundai. But for gratification, these are the best and trucks onthe market:

Hybrids

While plug-in remain in the prototype stage, kits are on the market (though has been spotty). EDrive’s with pricing to be announced To be (TBA)

A contract for the purchase or of an MBS to be delivered at an agreed-upon future but does not include a specified number and number of pools or amount to be delivered. replaces the nickel-metal-hydride battery pack a larger, lithium-ion pack. kits for the Prius ($9,500) and Escape (as yet unpriced un·priced

Having no assigned price: merchandise. but definitely more leave the existing batteries in but add a lithium-ion auxiliary battery. The is that they’re currently only for fleets. The consumer to do research before buying one of kits, with a particular on how they affect the car’s

Do plug-in hybrid vehicles exchange their pollution from tailpipe to coal-burning It depends on the electric power according to a new report released by the Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy ACEEE American Council for an Efficient Economy ), a nonprofit policy group. ACEEE that a plug-in version of the Prius could reduce CO2 by a third over a conventional hybrid, but only if its batteries charged with California mainly from relatively sources.

In the Midwest, dominated by power plants, the report the plug-in Prius would generate one percent more dioxide.

The goal of campaigns CalCars.org and the nonprofit Plug-In (www.pluginpartners.org), which work utilities, cities and grassroots is to convince carmakers to produce vehicles on their own. A hybrid running on ethanol from sustainably produced switchgrass

see panicum virgatum . be a state-of the-art clean trumped only by a battery or vehicle.

Diesel

Diesel are largely anathema to environmentalists and clean air regulators, but they’re dominating the roads of Europe green consciousness is almost a and they deserve a second in the U.S. where their can only go up. The good news for partisans is the federally mandated (below 15 parts per million per million

mg/kg or ml/l; see ) diesel fuel that on the market at up to 76,000 American stations late last It’s the cleanest diesel in the world.

One important consideration diesels is volume: There nine million diesel built on the worldwide vehicle in 2006 (18 percent of the total), but 300,000 hybrid cars percent). By 2010, carmakers be producing 13 million diesels perhaps a million hybrids). If fuel-efficient diesels can reduce our oil without increasing air pollution, need them here.

The fuel savings with a fleet is 1.4 million barrels of oil a about what the U.S. from Saudi Arabia.

The E320 Bluetec is the first vehicle sold in the U.S. to take full advantage of fuel. It can has a range of 700 miles, and is successful in capturing the nitrogen (NOx) and particulates (with a that are the diesel’s Achilles

Rudy Thom, an environmental research director at Mercedes-Benz, that Bluetec is being out in the U.S. first, because with 50 percent diesels on the still has wildly disparate regulations. The German Bluetec who goes skiing in Italy sulfur content is higher) end up bringing his poisoned car back on a tow rope.

Biodiesel

There are forms of bio fuel, and the categories can the novice. Biodiesel, in blends standard diesel of five to 100 has been refined to work modification in any newer diesel With a kit from companies Greasecar, diesels can burn 100 vegetable oil, which can be and filtered from restaurants for a recycled fuel.

Biodiesel, offers both improved and the opportunity to thumb your at fossil fuel, is still a grassroots enterprise, with banding together in co-ops.

five million gallons of were sold in 2005, but of biodiesel, whether made soybeans or a crop like is limited by our agricultural infrastructure. The Biodiesel Board The National Board . headquartered in Jefferson Missouri, was created in 1992 by soybean interests with the purpose of getting biodiesel into America’s fuel a major booster, nonetheless that under current biofuels can displace only 10 percent of current fossil use.

Partial Zero Vehicles

Although they’re on dealer lots in all of the states embrace the California emission (including Maine, Massachusetts, New New York, state, United

New York, Middle Atlantic of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania Lakes Erie and Ontario and the province of. Connecticut, New Jersey and with the likely addition of and Oregon) Partial Zero Vehicles (PZEVs) are largely even to very environmentally consumers. There’s nothing under the hood under the — [hot-rodder talk] 1. The implementation of a product (hardware, or idea). Implies that the is not intuitively obvious from the but the speaker is about to enable the to grok it. of a Partial Zero Vehicle (PZEV).

It’s powered by a gasoline and has a traditional tailpipe emerging its back end.

PZEVs are versions of such common as the Subaru Legacy, Ford and Nissan Altima. They exhaust gases with engine controls and advanced converters. Although they improve on fuel economy, by measures the emissions from tailpipes are cleaner than the air. A PZEV running is than a standard car shut because it emits near-zero emissions (the gasoline that escape from the system before they the engine).

All this for at most, a few dollars more than the model.

The Future with and Fuel Cells

If any one technology can the internal-combustion engine, it’s the cell, which doesn’t anything but converts hydrogen in a tank as liquid or gas) to and its tailpipe emission: water Fuel cells were in the mid-19th century andprovided power on NASA NASA: see Aeronautics and Space Administration.

in full National Aeronautics and Administration

Independent U.S. missions, but they’re only now practical for ground transportation.

The Sequel is one of the world’s most fuel-cell automobiles, representing millions of dollars of advanced RD. The looks like a fairly crossover SUV, but driving it is nothing else: EVs (fuel-cell are really electric cars) to be slow and plodding, but the Sequel out, zooming to 60 mph in only 10 It seats four with all the comforts, including air conditioning, and trunk space.

The Sequel is the edge: only two exist. But GM is 100 of its also-all-new Chevy Equinox ( `kw n ks). either of two points on the sphere where the ecliptic and the equator intersect. The vernal also known as the first of Aries, is the point at which the sun to cross the fuel-cell vehicles to regular-folk test drivers (in Washington, DC and Westchester County, New » Westchester County is a suburban county located in the state of New York with 950,000 residents. It is part of the New Metropolitan Area. It was named Chester, in England, and the county is White Plains. ) this

According to Greg Cesul, the fuel cell propulsion chief, these Equinoxes are based on the production SUV, and the latter’s ABS brakes, airbags (or at room for them), and federal Crashworthiness is the ability of a structure to its occupants during an impact. is commonly tested when the safety of vehicles.

Depending on the of the impact and the vehicle involved, criteria are used to determine Redundant safety systems it very unlikely that a car will ever catch let alone explode like the

The Honda FCX fuel-cell vehicle is emission, fun to drive, has almost 300 of range, and is easily refilled at a pumping station. So why aren’t we them yet? Well, the $1 to $2 price tag is a bit daunting daunt

daunt·ed . daunt·ing . daunts

To the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at

[Middle English daunten . Old French danter . from . as is the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure.

EVs promise, especially with the of high-output, lightweight lithium-ion batteries. There haven’t many on the market lately, but San California-based Tesla Motors is to change that with a snaz·zy

adj. snaz·zi·er . Slang

Fashionable or flashy.

[ unknown .]

snaz all-electric sports car that can achieve to 60 in just four seconds, a top speed of 130 mph. GM tried the performance emphasis with its battery car, but it was limited to 90 miles of range. If Tesla has able to achieve both performance and long range, a considerable breakthrough.

If not, the 100 buyers who just spent to sell out the first run of these are out of luck.

Even if a practical, hydrogen vehicle appeared it would be still be many before the current fleet into junkyards. But the rapid of hybrid cars on the U.S. is encouraging. America’s auto is hardly green, but it’s greener. CONTACT: CalCars, EDrive, www.edrivesystems.com; Hymotion, Greasecar, www.greasecar.com; Hybrid of America, (703)276-3265, www.hybridownersofamerica.org; Partners, www. pluginpartners.org; Motors, (650)413-4000, www.teslamotors.com; Car Journal, www.greencar.com; Union of Scientists The Union of Concerned ( UCS ) is a nonprofit advocacy group in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United

The UCS membership includes many citizens in addition to professional Hybrid Center, www.hybridcenter.org.

ARTICLE: Real-time fuel

The New York Times called it one of the fictions of American life, to the notion that fast is a healthy and nutritious alternative to meals. It’s window-sticker economy, which is almost hopelessly optimistic. If the sticker 30 mpg on the highway, expect 25 when down a mountain with a

The Environmental Protection Agency Protection Agency (EPA), agency of the U.S. government, headquarters in Washington, D.C. It was in 1970 to reduce and control air and pollution, noise pollution, and and to ensure the safe handling and EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.

EPA

abbr.

acid

EPA,

n.pr See eicosapentaenoic.

EPA,

n. ) has tested under ideal conditions: on ground, with no bumper-to-bumper or running air conditioners or heaters. unrealistic system had been since 1984. But it’s time for a little truth-telling. December, the EPA announced a new formula for fuel economy that reduce the numbers on the stickers mpg for city driving and 12 mpg for the highway, the impact falling most on small cars and hybrids.

The changes will begin 2008 models sold the 2007 calendar year.

As an the vaunted vaunt

v. vaunt·ed . . vaunts

To speak boastfully of; about.

To speak boastfully; See Synonyms at boast 1 .

1. Toyota won’t change mechanically at but instead of 55 mpg in combined city and driving it will now show 44 Consumer Reports has long this change, and spokesperson Ann a senior policy analyst, it a very positive step We’ve recommended a few other but they made the most changes to give more numbers.

This recognizes the in driving conditions over 30 For instance, in the 1970s, air conditioning was on upscale models, there was congestion The condition of a network there is not enough bandwidth to the current traffic load.

— When the offered of a data communication path the capacity. and universal 55-mph limits.

Wright points out an anomaly. The new calculations will be on window stickers, but the National Traffic Safety Administration The Highway Traffic Safety ( NHTSA . often pronounced is an agency of the Executive Branch of the Government, part of the Department of (NHTSA NHTSA National Traffic Safety Administration (US ) will still use the old numbers to automakers’ compliance with the Corporate Average Fuel (CAFE) laws. Getting in line might require congressional action or an administrative But obtaining the latter from a economy-phobic President Bush may difficult.

Former Congressman Boehlert, an environmental leader in the calls this a shame and CONTACT: Department of Energy economy site, www.fueleconomy.gov.

RELATED ARTICLE: Here the hybrids.

TOYOTA PRIUS: The wheel·base

The distance from the of the front wheel to that of the wheel in a motor vehicle, expressed in inches.

wheelbase

of the second-generation Prius, which in 2004, is stretched six inches, but the car achieves a combined milesper-gallon of 55 (probably 45 mpg in the real world). is the runaway bestselling hybrid, sales of more than in 2006. The $21,725 Prius as well as a late-model Toyota and wins certification as a Super-Ultra Low Vehicle California’s Low Emission ( LEV ) program defines automotive standards which are stricter the United States’ national regulations.

There have two major phases. (SULEV Super Ultra-Low Emission ). It’s also an AT-PZEV Advanced Technology Partial Emission Vehicle (auto). means that, unlike cars on the road that gasoline vapor (and global warming gas) parked, it has zero evaporative Jason Mark of the Union of Scientists’ Clean Vehicle describes the car as a shining example of the possible with advanced Actor Leonardo DiCaprio is about his Prius: It’s a in the right direction, he says.

I it up at the gas pump and it performs like any car. But I fill it up about every three weeks. The is the benchmark by which all other are measured.

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CAMRY HYBRID The Toyota Hybrid is a hybrid version of the sedan, introduced in May 2006. Its retail price is $25,900 [1] a $580 delivery fee. U.S. sales are 60,000 per or 15 percent of total Camry Like the Prius, the relatively new hybrid actually runs on its alone at low speeds.

Under the is a 2.4-liter four-cylinder engine uses the Atkinson cycle for fuel efficiency. Add together the 147 gasoline engine and the 45-horsepower motor and there’s 192 horsepower. and bigger than the Prius smaller in some interior the Camry achieves 43/37 Like the Prius, the Camry is a bargain at $26,480, priced less than the Honda Hybrid This page is this vehicle’s hybrid see Honda Accord for main and Honda Accord (USDM) for the American model

The Honda Hybrid is a Hybrid vehicle of the North American Honda

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Honda Civic Hybrid (3rd gen)

Main Honda Civic

The Honda Hybrid is a hybrid version of the Civic sedan.

For the 2003 of the Civic, Honda added a variable transmission and an Integrated Assist hybrid system to. The $22,150 Civic Hybrid, with a much more body style in 2006, with its sheer ordinariness. not special, or weird, or for purists It’s just like any Civic, except it’s an gets 49 miles per gallon 1. miles per gallon — the traveled in a vehicle powered by one of gasoline or diesel fuel

unit of measurement — any of quantity accepted as a standard of or exchange; the dollar is the United unit of (city) and 51 (highway), and has a of 600 miles. If there’s a sacrifice, in the $22,150 purchase price. But that can be offset with income tax credits, as well as incentives if they apply. To get 115 out of a 1.3-liter engine requires wizardry wiz·ard·ry

n. pl. wiz·ard·ries

1. The skill, or practice of a wizard;

a. A power or effect that magical by its capacity to transform. the hood is an Integrated Motor Integrated Motor Assist abbreviated as IMA ) is Honda’s hybrid car introduced in 1999 on the Insight. It an electric motor mounted the engine and transmission to act as a starter engine balancer, and assist motor. system that its 20-horsepower electric motor as a power booster, plus a variable transmission The continuously transmission ( CVT ) is a transmission in which the of the rotational speeds of two shafts, as the shaft and output shaft of a or other machine, can be varied within a given range, an infinite number of (CVT CVT Variable Transmission (automotive, utility hybrid vehicles)

CVT Center for Victims of Torture

CVT Vocational Training

CVT Certified Technician

CVT Control Value ). Honda hopes to sell in 2007.

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ACCORD HYBRID: Introduced at the end of the V-6-powered Accord Hybrid was for 2006, with more features (including a moonroof and a spare tire). Fuel suffers a bit with the car’s 85 pounds; it’s now 25/34 The $30,990 Accord Hybrid, 255 horsepower on tap, has been more as a performance car (with a to 60 time of 6.9 seconds) than as an champ, but that emphasis yielded the sales Honda had

Sales in 2006 were than a fifth of the hybrid

FORD ESCAPE HYBRID The Escape Hybrid . launched in is a gas-electric hybrid powered of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Motor Company. Built in City, Missouri, it was the first SUV to hit the market. The $26,900 Escape kudos as the first hybrid SUV on the achieving 36 mpg (city) and 31 mpg (highway) a system that is similar to in the Prius. It’s not as luxurious as the RX400h, or able to carry as people as the Toyota Highlander

But it’s a good first from a company that it wants to be an environmental leader but been lately. Ford more than 15,571 Hybrids in 2005, and in 2006 it 1,500 a month (plus a number of similar Mercury Hybrids).

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ARTICLE: The shocking electric car

Did General Motors intentionally sales of its electric EV-1? the contention of Chris Paine’s 2006 film Who Killed the Car. and the issue is still debated. Just about the thing the various players on is that GM leased only 800 of the two-door cars between and 2000 before pulling the

Some auto industry criticize the film, and they’re not all GM itself. The movie was terribly says Ernest Batien, a vice president, in an interview the Detroit Free Press The Free Press is the largest newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, It is sometimes informally referred to as the Some still refer to it as The Friendly — a slogan an ad campaign in the ’70s. It was not balanced at

The suggestion that GM chose not to money on a car people wanted to buy in is ridiculous, he said.

Paul of the Santa Monica-based Plug-In which advocates for battery says that GM ran a terrible campaign, and leased only 800 because that’s how many made available. They had a list of 4,000 or 5,000 he says. GM counters that it the people on the list and that were unwilling to actually leases.

It’s unlikely dispute will be resolved soon.

Although the film on GM, both Toyota (the and Honda (the EV Plus) electric cars at the time, and one did well. Toyota leased 342 vehicles and Honda not many Who Killed the Electric Car? over the range problem: of the EVs had a range of more than 100 and that remains a big obstacle for consumers.

The hybrid option, adds range to a standard gas had no trouble becoming established in the

GM spent $300 million the EV-1, and it seems unlikely it deliberately sabotage an investment of scale. I was reporting on electric at the time for my book Forward The Race to Build Clean for the Future, and my impression was that the had a two-pronged strategy. One arm was sincerely the EV-1 to a largely mystified

tr.v. mys·ti·fied . mys·ti·fy·ing .

1. To confuse or puzzle mentally. See at puzzle.

2. To make obscure or public, and the other was working the oil industry to defeat California’s car rules, which mandated a of battery-powered electric cars thus would have a great help in selling the Contradictory? Yes, but that’s how it

The mandates were duly to include hybrids and other cars, and that left EVs a consumer base. By 2000, the was drying up and companies like Electricar and Solectria were in

Today, EVs are on the rebound and Tesla has out the initial offering of its performance-oriented roadster. Better batteries are to spark a resurgence and the controversy the EV-1 will become history.

For his part, Who Killed Chris Paine says more sanguine about GM since the company announced a production plug-in hybrid car main story) and a battery with a gas motor used to keep those batteries I’m encouraged by GM’s announcement, Paine said. But they’ve got to commit to it in more words and Powerpoint. CONTACT: America, www.pluginamerica.com.—Jim Motavalli

RELATED ARTICLE: Have will travel.

Laurie and David are an environmental power Larry stars in the funniest on television, HBO’s Curb Enthusiasm (co-starring one of the couple’s Toyota Priuses). Laurie, a comedy manager and talent for the David Letterman Show, now to produce powerful green such as An Inconvenient Truth and Too Hot Not to

Laurie talked to us about the hybrid car that could.

Do you and use Priuses as your everyday and what is your experience them?

Yes, we both Priuses. In fact, everyone who with us has one. The outside of our looks like the parking lot of a dealership. The car is the best babe and magnet you can find.

They great and you feel giddy time you get out of one because you know you reduced your carbon emissions by half.

How did the Prius end up on

It ended up on the show because likes to have things are as familiar as possible to him there. He his own clothes, and it was a natural next that he would drive his car.

RELATED ARTICLE: clean: fast and furious on fuel.

One of the most common about alternative energy is how they perform. Consumers on Car and Driver and Road and Track to know how fast, say, a car goes from zero to 60.

The is that most carmakers try as as possible to make their vehicles transparent to the driver, that they don’t them to feel exotic or But the technology is very different, and so the experience varies quite Here’s an overview:

BIODIESEL

Since there’s been a of new diesels offered on the U.S. most conversions to biofuels are Volkswagen and Mercedes cars and As such, they don’t the most sophisticated driving and lack newer diesel controls. Older diesels are noisy and slow to accelerate, but conversion they start like their source McDonald’s fryer oil.

are poised for a resurgence with the of the world’s strictest low-sulfur laws, and that should allow the conversion of more cars.

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

vehicles (EVs). With connected to an electric motor, EVs are the removed from the standard experience. Largely silent for tire noise, the vehicles some other eccentricities. For unless the carmaker programs in is known as creep, they inch forward when the takes his or her foot off the brake. The braking experience (charging the when the driver backs off the also takes some time.

Electric motors excellent torque characteristics, and so most are reasonably quick off the

FUEL CELLS

Fuel Since fuel-cell vehicles are electric cars with a chemical factory instead of they largely replicate driving experience. But in early prototypes the compressors made dis·con·cert

tr.v. dis·con·cert·ed . . dis·con·certs

1. To upset the self-possession of; See Synonyms at embarrass.

2. hissing and noises, now largely engineered out of the A recent drive in the fuel-cell Motors Sequel This or section contains information a .

It is likely to contain information of a nature, though such be attributed to relevant sources. cars, by definition, rarely production models, and any given may change is both fast and quiet.

HYBRIDS AND PLUG-INS

and PlugIns, Today’s hybrids seamless integration of two drivetrains, by sophisticated computer controls. The from electric to gas mode is detectable, and the auto-off feature shuts down the engine at lights) is a miracle of modern No driver today would trouble with vehicles the Toyota Prius or Honda Hybrid.

NATURAL GAS

Natural With the ,a, natural gas-powered Civic GX The Honda Civic GX is a car that has been created to run on CNG Natural Gas). History

The Civic GX first appeared in as a [factory] modified Civic LX had been designed to run exclusively on CNG natural gas). sedan, I that the issue isn’t the (which is virtually indistinguishable a standard Civic) but the availability of gas. I’m lucky to have two pumps near my one at a home heating supplier and the in the town public works Since the GX carries the equivalent of gallons of fuel (pressurized

tr.v. pres·sur·ized . pres·sur·iz·ing .

1. To maintain normal air pressure in (an as an aircraft or submarine).

2. at 3,600 it runs through a tankful in 200 I made it to the fuel depot on fumes

odorous gases and volatile materials; inhalation of fumes causes coughing if sufficiently severe, irreversible edema. and then was frustrated by the a nozzle. On a pressurized system, is a deal breaker. Luckily, the connection worked, or I’d gone home at the end of a tow rope.

gas is still not available widely. ACEEE Green Book,

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