Hybrid Hypermiling Hybrid EcoDriving Ultra High MPG

1 Апр 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Hybrid Hypermiling Hybrid EcoDriving Ultra High MPG отключены
HONDA Insight 1.3 IMA HE CVT Continuosuly Variable







54.5 TO 67.5 AVG. MPG

Hybrid News: CADDY IN A KIMONO — Prius v Station Wagon New In 2012


PREFACE, PURPOSE INTENT: This 10 Hybrid Basics Best Practices Tips Guide To Prius Ultra High MPG web page was designed to be a One-Stop Shop where fuel economy conscious Prius hybrid drivers can quickly get Up On The Fuel Economy Step regarding learning how to Drive Hybrid $mart as well as learn a bit about hybrid history. It attempts to collect and lay out in one place, the basic information-knowledge-techniques needed for Prius hybrid drivers to quickly start achieving day-to-day, real-world fuel economies that regularly meet or beat the Official EPA Fuel Economy Rating of their particular hybrid vehicle.

The genesis for it was I got tired of forum moderators and their favored insider associates on the hypermiling and Prius gasoline-electric hybrid sites scolding and admonishing bright-eyed, innocent Newbies, and other Enquiring Minds Who Wanted To Know when they asked questions. Imagine a Newbie having the audacity and daring to ask honest, basic questions about the Prius on their forums only to be admonished and told to USE THE SEARCH FUNCTION (ON THE SITE), DUMMIE!

As the saying goes, Information Is Power, and too many of those knowledgeable Prius and hypermiling site members want Newbies to Kiss Their Ring. These less than friendly and helpful knowledgeable site members want to make sure they exercise questioning Newbies by making them jump through information hoops and pay some kind of deferential homage to them.

HYBRID KNOWLEDGE IS MPG POWER: T his Ten Tips Guide of mine is my attempt at helping get Newbies and others with MPG Fuel Economy (MPG-FE) questions to quickly Cut To The Fuel Economy Chase and get HYBRID KNOWLEDGE. By investing a little time reading my Ten Tips Guide, those who seriously want to lower their consumption of gasoline can get themselves pointed onto the path leading towards $tellar MPG Nirvana and gain MPG POWER.

Visitors who wander onto this 10 Hybrid Basics Best Practices Tips Guide To Prius Ultra High MPG e-article from out in the wild and wooly WWW hinterlands, can, at their leisure, probably find the basic answers to their questions here, and find them without having to be beat about the head and shoulders by a forum moderator or forum insider when they have a New-To-Newbies-Old-Stuff-To-Gurus MPG-FE related question.

Here, all can learn a few simple tips on things they might do, and new driving behaviors they might adopt, which can help them work towards maximizing the Miles-Per-Gallon Fuel Economy (MPG-FE) on their Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Powered Fuel-Sipper Whether it be a Classic 1 st Generation (GEN I/1G) 2000-2003, Iconic 2 nd Generation (GEN II/2G) 2004-2009, Next Generation 3 rd Generation (GEN III/3G) 2009Ѕ (2010)-2013, new in 2012 with follow-on in 2013 Maximus-Versatilius Prius v (vee for versatile ) hybrid station wagon or the recently put on the road subcompact Prius c and Prius Plug-In (PHEV).

This 10 Tips Guide had a modest start and small size at its inception —- But, alas, it has grown into a fuel miser’s tome. I shall offer no apologies as to its gargantuan size. It is what it is because it is stuffed chock full of golden nuggets of MPG-FE information. To dig and drill down for golden nuggets of Ultra-High MPG Fuel Economy, you have to carve out a serious-size segment of time to set a spell in front of your computer monitor to read through all the 24kt Nuggets of MPG-FE wisdom listed and discussed here.

After that it is all up to you. You have to make the effort to internalize them and start putting them to practice. Do so, and you will start seeing $tellar fuel economy numbers.

BE FOREWARNED. The first 2/5 ths or so of this article defines, discusses, and presents an overview of Hybrid Hypermiling / Pseudo-Hypermiling / Ecodriving, along with presenting a few summary snippets of background, history, and commentary about gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles, fuel-efficient driving, and the Prius. If you have no interest in this kind of hybrid vehicle driving philosophy, history, background information, and commentary, you can skip past it all by scrolling down to just a bit short of the half way point on this web page, to where you see the section entitled DRIVING *HYBRID $MART*: HYBRID BASICS FOR IMPROVED MILES $MILE$ PER GALLON (10 Best Practices For Achieving Stellar Fuel Economy In An OEM Instrumented Prius). This follows just after the Kammback Design Rearward Blind Spot Zone discussion and graphics.

Once there, you can begin reading and digesting the Ten Tips Guide items in earnest.

There is much information, and many details to chew on and digest in this 10 Tips Hybrid Basics/ Best Practices Guide buffet of Prius Hybrid material. The best way to implement and integrate the different Ultra High-MPG Fuel Economy tips and techniques into your personal driving to keep from being overwhelmed by it all, is to work on implementing and mastering each tip or technique, one at a time.

The Microsoft® Word Readability Statistics Assessment of the Ten Tips Guide is: Flesch-Kinkaid Grade Level Score of 17.4 and Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) of 26.7. Therefore, I recommend charging up your favorite mega-ounce drinking vessel with coffee, tea or other beverage of your choice, prior to digging in, commencing, and proceeding with a studied read of its 16,000+ words.

Dig in and spend the time necessary to work you way through it, and I am confident you will be rewarded with a golden nugget of information or two or three or . which will help you bump up the Per Tank-Full Fuel Economy numbers of your hybrid fuel-sipper beginning with your next fill-up.

HYBRID HYPERMILING/PSEUDO-HYPERMILING/ECODRIVING DEFINED : The grand goal, and purpose of Hybrid Hypermiling /Pseudo-Hypermiling/ EcoDriving is to achieve ultra-high fuel use efficiency by incrementally squeezing the greatest travel distance out of every drop of fuel drawn from a hybrid vehicle’s fuel tank. That is, Hybrid Hypermiling /Pseudo-Hypermiling/ EcoDriving is manipulating and minimizing your vehicle’s fuel consumption as you manage its inertia and momentum to have it deliver maximum fuel economy per mile/kilometer traveled.

Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermilers or EcoDrivers operate hybrid vehicles using an overall strategy that combines pre-operative set-ups with intelligent incremental fuel-efficiency focused driving techniques. These set-ups and techniques permit these hybrid drivers to minimize instantaneous fuel consumption and gasoline engine operation when traveling from Point A-To-Point B-. -To-Point N, thereby, causing the vehicle to significantly surpass its official EPA fuel economy ratings.

There are some drivers who practice a Strict or Extreme type of Hybrid Hypermiling/EcoDriving. These drivers usually have special add-on after market non-OEM performance monitoring instrumentation installed in their vehicles, and employ driving techniques that most drivers would consider to be extreme. I am not one of those drivers.

I am an ultra-high fuel economy Purest, who operates my hybrid car using only its OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), factory stock instrumentation while driving it at a level just below this strict-extreme level of Hybrid Hypermiling/EcoDriving. I call myself, and other drivers like me who practice this safe, lawful and unobtrusive level of fuel efficient driving, Pseudo-Hypermilers/EcoDrivers.

True Pseudo-Hypermiler/EcoDrivers stealthily and inconspicuously apply fuel-saving techniques, and would never drive breaking traffic laws or to impede or obstruct traffic flow on the highways and byways they travel. They have learned how to Hide In Plain Sight And Stay Below-The-Radar of other drivers on the road with them as they drive down the highways and byways in pursuit of Ultra High MPG Fuel Economy. That is, they have mastered how to Hide In Plain Sight midst the surrounding, milling gas guzzling herd, as they fuel efficiently flow down the road easily logging Ultra High MPG numbers at 125% of the Official EPA MPF-FE Rating, which can extend to upwards of 130% to 140+% of EPA.

Let me emphasis that, unlike extreme Hypermilers . Pseudo-Hypermilers drive unobtrusively, inconspicuously, safely, responsibly, and courteously. They adher to traffic laws as they employ fuel saving driving strategies, considerations and techniques to the Day-To-Day Travel/Daily Commuting operation of their OEM equipped and instrumented hybrid vehicles. Their stealthy, Hybrid $mart fuel economy focused driving works to optimize and maximize gasoline mileage and fuel efficiency, without impinging on other drivers on the road.

They extract the greatest distance out of every drop of fuel they purchase and put into their hybrid vehicle’s fuel tank, while driving safely and lawfully in the process of doing of it.

If you should happen see a hybrid driver exhibiting out-of-norm driving behaviors, in an apparent effort to save fuel, they likely are an Extreme Hybrid Hypermiler, not a Pseudo-Hypermiler/EcoDriver. Driving actions and behaviors such as, high-speed wheeling of corners without braking, rolling through stop signs, driving too slow for traffic flow conditions, impeding or hindering normal traffic flow so as to cause a line of traffic to form behind them or motoring down the road with their Hazard Warning Lights on and flashing or signaling drivers following directly behind them by Brake Check tapping their brake lights are all indicative of an Extreme Hybrid Hypermiler.

Anyone can become an Ultra High MPG Pseudo-Hypermiler/EcoDriver, by simply understanding the hybrid vehicle’s factory installed performance monitoring instrumentation, and then safely and lawfully applying basic knowledge about gas-electric hybrid-powered vehicles to their personal vehicle to their best fuel economy advantage.

Any newbie, novice or I Just Drive It Hybrid Owner-Driver who decides to incorporate basic hybrid car knowledge and Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Techniques into their Day-To-Day/Real-World driving-commuting, can significantly improve the miles-per-gallon/liters-per-100 kilometers fuel economy delivered to them by their hybrid vehicle.

ME, MY HYBRID AND THE HYBRID WATERFRONT : I have owned and driven the first Prius, an iconic 2G, since 2006. It was replaced with a new 2012 Prius v Station Wagon by Santa on December 25, 2011.

My first Prius was what is commonly referred to as the iconic Second Generation (GENII/2G) Prius Hybrid Sedan Hatchback. By the Christmas Gifting beneficence of my beauteous wife, that Prius 2G Sedan was traded in on a new, 2012 Prius v Station Wagon during the 2011-2012 Holidays, two months after the Euber Versatile vee was introduced in the Fall of 2011.

When traffic, road and weather conditions permit, I employ safe, lawful and an unobtrusive Ultra-High Fuel Economy Hybrid Hypermiling/EcoDriving Techniques in driving the iconic GEN II/2G, and now the Caddy In A Kimono vee. The reward from my Pseudo Hypermiling / EcoDriving effort is EPA beating, Stellar MPG-FE. The discussion in this e-article is centered around my personal experience in applying Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving Techniques to my OEM instrumented, and Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) System powered and controlled Prius hybrid vehicles.

The multiple Per Tank-Full average MPG-FE for my tank fulls of gas over the last nearly five (5) years, as read-out and logged from the Multi-Function Display (MFD) of my Prius 2G, ranged over the low-to-mid 50s to low-to-high 60s MPG. These MPG-FE numbers were/are dependent on seasonal temperature variations over the year, along with the amount of HVAC heat/air conditioner use.

These reported Stellar Miles-Per-Gallon Fuel Economy Performance numbers include a

2± MPG Hit leveed on me by the State Of Florida and Federal Goverment when Florida implemented the federally mandated use of petroleum-based gasoline motor-fuel water-down with 10% Ethanol, as called out in the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

The government, with its new 2007 federal law, and the associated implementing state-level law mandating ethanol blended fuel use in motor vehicles, robbed MPGs and $$$s from all drivers, whether they are driving a hybrid and conventionally-powered vehicle. This government mandate forced me to begin burning the less energy dense E10 CONTAINS UP TO 10% ETHANOL 90:10 Gasohol in May 2008, when my state implemented it. I have been burning this less energy dense, ten-percent ethanol diluted E10 Gasohol ever since May 2008 when Florida mandated it be dispensed and sold in my area.

I conducted, and continue to carry out my personal War On Petrol Terrorism — One Gallon Of Gasoline Not Consumed-Purchased At A Time, a s per barrel crude oil prices fluctuated, and have fluculated between $40± to $140±, with gasoline prices at the pump ranging between $1.40± and $4.00± per gallon. Through it all, my application of Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling/EcoDriving delivered Stellar, 120-150% of the EPA Fuel Economy Estimate fuel economy numbers to me, which has made for fabulous five-plus (5+) fuel sipping years.

PERSONAL FUEL ECONOMY NOTE: My Prius ‘Petrol Warfighters’ have propelled me and my family 60,000+ miles down life’s road in our pursuit of liberty and happiness. My lifetime, cumulative average fuel economy driving over those miles is running at 60± MPG. Total Savings In Fuel Consumption Avoidance — 4,000± Gallons Of Gallons Of Black Liquid Arabian Gold Saved.

The Family CFO, my wife, loves the $-$-$-$avings.

Vehicles currently using versions and technical elements of Toyota ‘s Full Hybrid Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) system are the Prius Hybrid family and the hybrid versions of the Camry . Highlander and Lexus as well as Ford Escape / Fusion Mercury Mariner/Milan and Nissan Altima hybrids. The Ford Escape/Fusion// Mercury Mariner/Milan licenses key elements of Toyota’s Hybrid System (THS) and the Nissan Altima licenses the complete Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) system from Toyota .

However, the concepts and contents in this guide article also have general application to vehicles powered by Honda’s Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid Gas-Electric Drive used in the Hybrid Civic, Insight I/II, and new CR-Z as well as to General Motor’s Saturn Vue/Aura and Chevrolet Malibu Green Line Mild Hybrids and GMC/Chevrolet/Saturn Tahoe/Yukon/Vue Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrids as well as other Two-Mode hybrid Chrysler-Dodge Aspen/Durango, BMW and the Mercedes Direct Hybrid vehicles.

GAS-ELECTRIC HYBRID-DRIVE RECENT HISTORY OVERVIEW : Let me share some recent gas-electric hybrid vehicle history with you here. Hybrid cars started being offered by Toyota and Honda and used on the streets of Japan in the late 1990s. The Honda Insight chassis with its Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) and the Toyota Prius with its First Generation (1G/GEN I/NHW10[Japan]NHW11[U.S.]) Toyota Hybrid System (THS) hybrid gas-electric drive propulsion systems were designed and engineered as gas-electric hybrid cars from the ground up.

Honda s IMA-Powered aluminum-bodied Insight was first offered for sale in the U.S. in 1999. Toyota s THS-Powered Prius started being sold in the U.S. in 2000 (MY 2001).

The original aluminum-bodied 61/65/70 MPG 2-Door/2-Passenger w/ Hatchback Honda Insight is no longer in production (since 2006), but its Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid-drive solution has been bolted into a standard Honda Civic 4-Door/5-Passenger sedan chassis to form what is today s 49/50/51 MPG Honda Civic Hybrid (HCH). A new 2010 model, 40/41/43 MPH 5-Passenger/5-Door Hatchback Honda Hybrid, was introduced bearing the Insight II nameplate with a 2011 CR-Z Hybrid offered for sale in the USA beginning in August 2010.

Until and through 2003, Toyota offered the earlier First Generation (1G/GEN I) 52/48/45 MPG NHW11 Prius in the U.S. with its gas-electric hybrid-drive solution called the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) . This First Generation (1G/GEN I) Prius came in a conventional, 5-passenger compact sedan sized chassis design with a conventional, non-hatchback/liftback trunk.

In 2004, the First Generation (1G/GEN I/NHW11) Prius THS hybrid-drive was upgraded, and its chassis replaced. It was replaced by a new Pre-2008 EPA Test Mode 51/55/60 MPG Second Generation (2G/GEN II) NHW20 Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) powered vehicle delivering improved fuel economy along with more electric power in a new, unique low coefficient of aerodynamic drag (Cd = 0.26) 5-passenger 4-Door Sedan Liftback/Hatchback chassis. This 2G/GEN II/NHW20 HSD replaced the 1G/GEN I/NWH11 THS system and has been sold in the U.S. from Model year 2004 through 2009.

In the Spring of 2009, the 2G/GEN II/NHW20 was replaced by the 3G/GEN III, 2009Ѕ/2010 to today version ZVW30 Third Generation Prius model, including the new Caddy In A Kimono Prius v Station Wagon, introduced in Model Year 2012.

2009 is the last year the EPA 45/46/48 MPG (Pre-2008 EPA Method: 51/55/60 MPG) 2G/GEN II Prius was sold. The 2010 3G Prius came out i n Model Year 2010. Toyota replaced 2G/GEN II with their battery and hybrid technology upgraded Third Generation (3G/GEN III) ZVW30 Model Prius. The 2010 3G Prius is the 100 MPG Prius that written about in the news.

Its best-case fuel economy per Japan’s 10.15 Mode Fuel Cycle was touted as 100± MPG, with a nominal MPG of 75-85. The 2010 3G Prius garnered an Official EPA Fuel Economy Rating of 48/50/51 MPG (using the Pre-2008 EPA Test Method, this 48/50/51 MPG would likely translate into something like 54/60/64 MPG ).

Real-World expectations were that this Next Generation of Prius would deliver a modest 10%-13% improvement in City MPG, raising its EPA fuel efficiency rating up from 48 to 51 EPA MPG (Up to 64-68 MPG using Pre-2008 EPA Test Method). These expectations were met.

There are many cars being offered and touted as Eco-Friendly, Green Hybrids, but, in my opinion, the only technologically elegant gas-electric hybrid solution on the market today is Toyota s Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD). Here a listing of the current gasoline-electric hybrid car drive system solutions, versions which are being offered/marketed by Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Ford/Mercury, General Motors (Chevrolet/GMC/Saturn), Chrysler-Dodge, BMW, Mercedes. I will list them next in rank order along with some comments.

1. TOYOTA HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE (HSD)/FORD HYBRID DRIVE: Toyota s Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) tops the list. Its architecture is a full Serial/Parallel Hybrid, and is the only truly Full-Time Hybrid System. The Generation II (GEN II/2G) HSD is used in all the 2004-2009 Prius cars as well as the Hybrid Camry . Hybrid Highlander, Lexus LS600hL/LS/GS/RX/HS/ CT Hybrids and Nissan Altima Hybrid Platforms.

The GEN II/2G HSD was followed by the improved GENERATION III (GEN III/3G) HSD used in the 2010-2013 Sedan Hatchback, and newly launched 1st Generation vee Prius v Station Wagon.

However, each uses an ICE displacent size and set of control parameters tailored specifically to each platform. Prius is different from the Camry . which is different from the Highlander, which is different from the LS600hL/LS/GS/RX/HS/ CT, which are all different from the Altima .

As previously mentioned, a licensed version of the 2G/GEN II HSD is used in the Hybrid Nissan Altima with 21 licensed hybrid patents from Toyota s older 1G/GEN I THS used, and incorporated into the Ford Escape/Fusion — Mercury Mariner/Milan Hybrid Drive design solution.

Toyota s gas-electric hybrid solution combines the characteristics of a pure electric vehicle (EV) drive and a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and uses electricity and control electronics and software in place of toothed gears. The Hybrid Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the driver-operated engine controls. Both the gas throttle pedal and the gearshift lever in an HSD equipped car merely send electrical signals to a control computer, which manages and handles operation.

The 2G/GEN II HSD hybrid system as installed in the 2004-2009 Prius . delivers an approximately 71% increase in CITY DRIVING fuel economy over what the 1.5 Liter I-4 ICE in the Prius would deliver were it to be utilized to power and drive the Prius chassis in a non-hybrid, conventional Otto Cycle gasoline-powered application. The new 3G/GEN III 2010 Prius replaced the 1.5 Liter I-4 ICE with a 1.8 Liter I-4 along with adding some new fuel saving technologies. This change resulted in an

6% increase in Official EPA CITY fuel economy.

2. HONDA INTEGRATED MOTOR ASSIST (IMA) HYBRID DRIVE: The architecture of Honda s Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) is more a Serial Hybrid or Power Assist Parallel gas-electric propulsion system. It comes in second on my list, a close second, but still second. As the Assist in the IMA name implies, it is not a Full-Time, hybrid drive, whereas, Toyota s HSD is Full-Time. The basic IMA Hybrid System and follow-on -2, -3 and -4 generations of added technical enhancements, is used to power the original Honda Insight, Accord and Civic Hybrid (HCH) cars as well as follow-on versions of the HCH. The new 2009Ѕ/2010 Global Small Honda Hybrid (GSHH), Insight II, was introduced in the Spring of 2009.

The 2011 CR-Z Hybrid, which hit showrooms in August 2010, has the most recently updated iteration of the H-IMA solution.

Honda s IMA hybrid car technology uses an electric motor mounted between the engine and transmission to act as a starter motor, engine balancer, and traction-assist motor. In its first generation, IMA did not function to power the car on electricity alone, and could only use the electric motor to assist or start the ICE. Beginning with the 2006 Civic Hybrid model, control software changes facilitated activation of the IMA electric motor in the EV (Electric Vehicle) mode while the vehicle is coasting without activating the ICE.

Compared to Toyota s Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) or the GM/Daimler-Chrysler/BMW Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid, the IMA Hybrid has a less powerful motor-generator. The smaller motor-generator permits the IMA Hybrid to slow or stop its rate of deceleration by a lesser extent compared to the HSD and 2Mode hybrids equipped with larger motor-generators. Additionally, the IMA-Powered Hybrid cannot operate without mechanically turning over the ICE, which is directly mechanically coupled in series with the electric motor-generator.

The IMA Hybrid system as installed in the Honda Civic Hybrid (HCH), Insight II, and CR-Z delivers an approximately 63% increase in CITY DRIVING fuel economy over what the 1.3 Liter I-4 HCH ICE [1.5 Liter version in CR-Z ] would deliver were it utilized to drive the Honda Civic/Insight II/CR-Z chassis in a non-hybrid, conventional gasoline-powered application.

3. GENERAL MOTORS CHEVROLET VOLT E-REV/REEV SERIAL HYBRID DRIVE: The Volt’s Voltec drivetrain has a single planetary gear set, a pair of electric motors and gasoline-powered engine. Unlike the Generation I, II and III Toyota Prius . and its plug-in, PHEV version due out in 2012, all which are parallel gas-electric hybrid cars whose electric battery, gasoline engine or both in combination can propel them, the Chevrolet Volt is essentially a plug-in, gasoline-electric serial hybrid car. At speeds below 70 MPH, electric drive motors on its wheels propel the Volt 100% electrically from power supplied from the battery and main electric bus. These drive motors receive electric power from a common, shared Direct Current (DC) Bus.

Electric power to the DC Bus is supplied by the Volt s traction battery or its onboard, gas-fueled engine-generator.

The Volt’s power-train design is centered on it being an Electric Vehicle (EV), meaning it is designed to be powered primarily by its 400-pounds of onboard Li-Ion Traction Battery, which must be charged up by being plugged into the public power grid or other suitable electric power source external to the Volt vehicle. It has a secondary, battery backup power mode, which is provided by an onboard, auxiliary conventional gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) that turns an electric generator whose electric output is switched online to power the drive wheels when the traction battery charge is depleted.

When operating in the Charge Sustaining (CS) Mode at speeds of 70 MPH and above, the ICE is switched from powering and driving the wheels via connection to electric generators that electrically drive the wheels, to having the ICE powering, driving, and providing motive force to the wheels via direct mechanical coupling. This is done to gain an additional 10 to 15 percent of operating efficiency at higher Interstate-Freeway-Highway cruise speeds.

GM calls this backup, auxiliary gasoline engine a Range Extender engine. This 1.4 Liter I4 Range Extender auxiliary engine used in the Volt is the premium gasoline burning, non-Turbo (LUU) version of the DOHC Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT Turbo (LUJ) engine currently used in the Chevy Cruze . The range-extender engine is married to an electric generator. The primary function of this range extending engine-generator combination is to serve as a fallback, secondary electromotive power source to backup the Li-Ion traction battery array when it can no longer power the drive motors due to lack of an electric charge.

In the course of normal operation, the engine-generator will automatically start up and kick in to supply electric power to the Volt when its battery no longer can. W hen in this Normal Mode of operation, this Range Extender engine-generator does not automatically charge the traction battery with excess energy scavenged from the ICE, as the parallel hybrid design used in the Prius does. However, the Range Extender engine-generator can be manually switched on to operate in a traction battery charge sustaining and assisting mode, CS-Mode (battery depleted, gasoline engine on and driving a generator to provide electric power to the batteries) . by use of the Drive Mode button.

Depressing this Drive Mode button will switch the Volt out of its default, regular Normal operating mode (Range Extender Engine-Generator not normally on), and put it into either the Sport or the Mountain mode. Switching the Volt into these enhanced performance Sport or Mountain modes causes the Range-Extender Engine-Generator to be switched on, and connect into the E-REV/REEV system full-time to provide supplemental electrical power to sustain the charge of the traction battery along with supplying additional electric power to the drive wheels. As their Sport and Mountain names imply, these performance-boosting modes are used to provide added zip, acceleration (Sport) or added electric power for climbing hills, mountains or inclines (Mountain), but at the expense of burning Premium Unleaded priced gasoline and lowering fuel economy.

The E-REV acronym used by GM-Chevrolet to describe the Volt design stands for E lectric-powered with R ange E xtender gasoline engine-generator V ehicle. Another term commonly used to describe the Volt is R anged E xtended E lectric V ehicle (REEV). When the Volt is operating in the pure battery-driven EV mode, it uses no gasoline.

When the R ange E xtender gasoline engine-generator is caused to fire up and kick in, the Volt s incremental, instantaneous miles-per-gallon of gasoline fuel economy becomes, essentially, the inherent fuel economy of the onboard Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT Turbo engine that turns the electric generator less any power transfer losses.

Depending on traffic and weather conditions, terrain, air conditioning and heater usage, operation of electrical features-accessories, driving style, and how heavy a foot one uses on the throttle pedal, the Volt can travel up to 40± miles on a single, full charge of its Li-Ion Traction Battery. Per the GM/Chevrolet performance specifications listed on their official Volt website, the backup, auxiliary gas-powered engine-generator will kick in at the point the onboard Li-Ion traction battery becomes drained, depleted. In this secondary, backup power mode, the gas-powered range-extending engine-generator will then supply electricity to propel the Volt another several hundred additional miles or up to 300± miles.

The 300± miles extended-range distance is best-case, and assumes the Volt has a topped off, full tank of gasoline when switched into this secondary power mode that backups up the traction battery when it becomes depleted.

The 40-miles powered by battery alone added to the 300-miles powered by the gasoline engine alone gives the Volt a 340-mile range or a best-case maximum usable circumscribed radius of action travel distance from Point A To Point B Return of 170-miles, without being recharged and refueled.

FWIW, Prior to the date of this revision to my 10-Tips article, GM/Chevrolet was keeping the size of the gas tank a closely held secret. Back in November 2009, Edmunds-INSIDE LINE reported the gas tank size would be 8-gallons, and went on to speculate that the Volt would get 38± MPG in the Battery Backup, Charge Sustaining Mode. The size of the Volt s fuel tank has now been confirmed to be 9.3 gallons, and the official EPA Combined City-Highway Fuel Economy displayed on the new EPA Monroney Sticker is 37 MPG.

As a point of reference, the official EPA MPG Fuel Economy numbers of the 2011 Chevrolet Cruze powered by the 4-cylinder, 1.4 Liter engine w/ Automatic (S6) transmission burning Regular Unleaded is 24 City/28 Combined/36 Highway. Taking this 9.3 gallon tank size, and assuming 1.3 gallon emergency reserve, leaves 8.0 gallons of fuel. Using a 34 MPG number, which is closer to what the average driver might see, and doing the math, results in [8.0 gal + 1.3 gal] x 34 miles/gal = 272.0 miles (base) + 44.2 miles (reserve) = 316.2 miles range at dry tank.

This 316-miles range number is within the make sure we get over 300 miles of fuel range, Volt Chief Engineer, Andrew Farah, is targeting.

Using the new, recently published EPA sticker numbers for the 2011 Volt, we see EPA promising 35-miles running All Electric on EV-Battery drive, and 344-miles more running on Gas Alone, with the Range Extender auxiliary engine operating in the Normal Battery Backup, Charge Sustaining (CS) Mode. Combining these numbers yields 35 + 344 = 379 miles as a maximum range number at Dry Gas Tank.

We will just have to wait and see exactly what the MPG-FE for the Volt is in the CS-Mode with the 1.4 Liter I4 Range Extender auxiliary engine operating in the Normal Battery Backup, Charge Sustaining (CS) Mode.

I estimate that the average driver, operating in average driving and all-season weather conditions, will probably see Range Extender auxiliary engine gasoline-powered operating fuel economies in the High 20s-To-Low/Mid 30s MPG range.

Considering the above, I guesstimate the maximum driving ranges in the Battery-EV Plus Range Extender Mode for the average Just Drive It John or Jane Q. Volt- Driver will likely be something less than the 35 miles + 344 miles = 379 miles advertised by GM/Chevrolet and EPA. I think it will probably fall closer to something like 285-325 miles Max Range running the Volt to Dry Gas Tank. More practically, it will be 250-285 miles until the Low Fuel Warning light illuminates telling you are running on your emergency reserve fuel, and better find a gas station ASAP.

Bottom-line, if you get invited to Mom s, Grandma s or Aunt Martha s house for Thanksgiving or Christmas Dinner, and the dear darlings live less then 300-miles away, you should be able to make the motor trip there in a Volt nonstop. This assumes you roll out of your driveway with a full battery charge, a topped-off tank of gas, and drive EV-Hybrid $mart all the way there.

4. GM/DAIMLER-CHRYSLER/BMW TWO-MODE/DIRECT HYBRID DRIVE: The Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid Solution was jointly developed by General Motors/Daimler-Chrysler/BMW to power heavy curb-weight, large mass-transit city bus sized vehicles. Its Two-Mode design means it is not a Full-Time hybrid drive system. It was developmental test and evaluated and Pilot Tested with Limited Field Deployment in the 1990s.

As part of this Pilot-Limited Field Deployment, a few hundred city mass-transit buses were put into service in selected cities, mostly in Europe. but otherwise it was shelved without broader follow-on deployment and expanded application into private passenger vehicles until recently.

Although it had been shelved by General Motors Corporation prior to the New Millennium, when $100-per-barrel oil approached and $3.00+ per gallon gas happened, GM quickly resurrected and re-embraced the Mass-Transit Bus-Sized Two-Mode gas-electric hybrid power solution. They quickly brought it down off the shelf, dusted it off and down-sized and tamped it into and under the hoods of their Full-Sized 2008 GMC Yukon /Chevrolet Tahoe Family Bus-Sized SUV Trucks to power these mega-tonnage Gas-Guzzling Beasts. In addition, at the Washington Auto Show in January 2008, General Motors Corp. announced it had received orders for 1,732 Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid buses from transit agencies in Washington. Philadelphia and Minneapolis/St.


The Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid System employs a special electronically variable transmission (EVT) with two integrated motor-generators along with using special fuel saving ICE technologies that include cam phasing, variable valve timing (VVT) and Active Fuel Management cylinder deactivation technologies. These elements working together, deliver an overall improvement in fuel economy over the equivalent non-hybrid Yukon/Tahoe versions of 40% to 50% City MPG/25% Highway MPG. Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid Yukons/Tahoes are now being offered in limited availability qualities for Model Year 2008 with a Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid version of the Saturn Aura/ Vue and Chevrolet Malibu offered in 2009.

Although the 40% to 50% City MPG/25% Highway MPG improvement is a good improvement in fuel economy on a percentage basis, the Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid Solution comes in a distant third compared to the HSD and ISA enabled gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles on total delivered miles per gallon fuel economy. The HSD and IMA used in the 51/55/60 MPG Prius and 46/48/51 MPG Civic deliver twice to three times the MPG-FE that is delivered by heavy curb-weight Two-Mode Hybrid enabled truck-sized 21/21/22 MPG Yukon/Tahoe vehicles.

The Two-Mode designation comes from the hybrid s two operating modes that can function singularly or in parallel. One mode is optimized for city driving and the other for highway driving. Under light loads and at low speeds (City Mode), the Two-Mode system can operate either on its electric motors and battery pack or on internal combustion engine (ICE) power alone, or using a combination of the two modes.

At higher speeds and with heavier loads (Highway Mode), The Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid System switches to the second mode that runs mainly on the gasoline engine with electric motor-battery available and assisting as and if needed for added power to climb steep grades, tow a trailer, or for added acceleration oomph during passing.

Any and all hybrids you may see being offered/planned to be offered by General Motors/Chrysler-Dodge/Mercedes/BMW in the upcoming model years, will be based around and incorporate this Two-Mode (2Mode) Hybrid System that was jointly developed by GM/Daimler-Chrysler/BMW to power heavy curb weight SUVs and bus-sized heavy-vehicles.

5. CHEVROLET/SATURN GREEN LINE/ECO eASSIST MILD-HYBRID DRIVE: This hybrid solution is a Mild Hybrid [Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) system with Auto-Stop]. It was originally called Green Line by Chevrolet/GM, but now is being called ECO eAssist. When compared to the Hybrid Synergy Drive, Integrated Motor Assist, 2Mode/Direct, and E-REV/REEV gas-electric hybrid solutions discussed above, this fuel conserving solution comes in last and resides at the bottom of the hybrid technology barrel.

The Battery Alternater Starter solution is what I call a marketing solution that was cobbled together by General Motors for the Chevrolet Malibu and old Saturn Aura/Vue when they were scrambling to become Eco-Green and Fuel-Efficient overnight. GM had their engineers throw together a quick and dirty Battery-Alternator motor-generator techno-kludge. This Mild Hybrid solution is essentially using an over-sized car-battery to power an electric motor-generator permitting the Hybrid Chevrolet Malibu and old Saturn Aura/Vue to run off battery power for short periods.

HONDA Insight 1.3 IMA HE CVT Continuosuly Variable

The original Green Line BAS solution has been tweaked and refined into the ECO eAssist mild hybrid BAS system that debuted at the 2011 New York Auto Show. This next generation BAS mild hybrid system show car was an EPA 26 MPG City/38 MPG Highway 2013 Chevrolet Malibu ECO model powered GM/Chevy’s 2.4-liter Ecotec four-cylinder aided by the aforementioned ECO eAssist BAS solution . This revised BAS ECO eAssist system is the same one used in the new mild hybrid eAssisted Buick LaCrosse and Regal cars introduced in CY2012.

The new ECO eAssist [revised old Green Line Mild-Hybrid Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) w/ Auto-Stop] system basically functions like a battery-alternator powered turbo-charger, which gives an extra bit of e-Assist propulsion oomph to the gasoline engine through a large starter motor. This Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) system employs a special oversized starter motor in combination with an oversized, up-voltaged 36 Volt car battery (i.e. essentially electrically equivalent to three (3) standard 12 V car batteries connected in electrical series, 12V + 12V + 12V = 36V). The battery in this new ECO eAssist offering has been upgraded to use lithium ion (Li-Ion) battery technology.

The Battery-powered Alternator-Starter assists and mechanically turns over the non-operating internal combustion gasoline engine (ICE) to power the vehicle from a …-stop until a certain speed (i.e. Gasoiline Engine Start-Up RPM level is reached) or to provide a quick boost in acceleration while moving down the road. Once Start-Up RPM is reached when starting from a …-stop or a foot throttle request for an added spurt of acceleration occurs while already moving, the gasoline engine fires-up to provide increased power as it operates using the Otto Cycle of the car’s conventional gasoline engine.

As with a typical starter motor, the electric motor in the Mild-Hybrid BAS is not connected directly to the main driveline power train. The gasoline engine starts operating after being spun-up by the BAS eAssist. The BAS eAssist electric motor overcomes the initial starting inertia and propels the vehicle using electric power, not gasoline-power, which is how Mild-Hybrid BAS System works to incrementally save fuel.

In addition, fuel to the gasoline engine is automatically shut off when the vehicle is coasting, braking or stopped.

The ECO eAssist (old Green Line) Mild-Hybrid BAS installed in the new Chevrolet Malibu, Buick LaCrosse and Regal, and old Saturn Vue/Aura does seem to provide some small improvement in fuel economy (approximately 10%), while keeping complexity to a minimum.

There, I have given you a brief overview tutorial on and about gas-electric hybrid vehicles offered/being offered here in the U.S.

FIRST, THE BAD NEWS: If you choose to drive your new hybrid car using the same Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop driving techniques you used to drive the conventionally powered car it replaced, your miles-per-gallon fuel economy numbers will not be remarkable. The MPG-FE numbers probably will be much like it was being solely powered by the conventional gasoline powered Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) installed in it to power the ICE portion of the hybrid gasoline-electric propulsion system.

I once owned a 1992 Honda Civic CX. It was conventionally powered by a standard lean-burn 70 hp gasoline-powered Honda In-Line 4-Cylinder Otto Cycle ICE, which delivered an EPA 42 City/45 Combined/48 Highway Estimated MPG and 41 Around Town /48 Open-Road, as measured by me using the Multiple-Tank-Refill Method.

The gasoline-powered portion of the Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive system is powered by 76 hp Toyota In-Line 4-Cylinder ICE, operated on the Atkinson Cycle. Toyota ‘s 76 hp In-Line 4-Cylinder ICE is similar in size, weight and power to 70 hp Honda Civic CX ICE. This means that the inherent, nominal gas mileage of the Prius In-Line 4-Cylinder ICE is probably the same as the 41/48± MPG delivered by the ICE of my old Honda Civic CX.

Therefore, if your Prius is delivering less than or equal to 41-48 MPG-FE, you probably are driving your gasoline-electric Prius hybrid using the same fuel consumption inefficient driving techniques you use to operate 100% conventionally powered cars, and causing the gasoline engine to run more than it needs to run. The consequences of your Hybrid Unfriendly driving habits and operating techniques are that you are effectively bypassing/overriding the fuel economy contribution benefits available from the electrical energy regenerating, recovering and storage portions of the gas-electric hybrid system.

Continuing to use such old, hybrid unfriendly driving techniques, and not driving Hybrid Smart, will prevent you from reaping the incremental fuel economy harvest that is available from the battery and regenerative motor-generator and braking elements of the hybrid gasoline-electric system design.

A BIT MORE NOT SO GOOD NEWS: Unfortunately, most drivers lack the inclination, dedicated driving discipline and frugality required to work at learning to optimally drive their hybrid car, as a hybrid car must be driven to facilitate it delivering its maximum fuel economy benefits and truly stellar real-world MPG.

Most first-time hybrid car owner-operators lack prior knowledge on the optimal operation of a hybrid vehicle. As a result, when they pick their new hybrid up at the dealer, and drive it off the lot, they do so using the same Gas-To Go/Brake-To-Stop operating manner they used driving the old 100% conventionally powered autos their new hybrid car replaced. These conventional foot throttle pedal punching and brake stomping Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop driving techniques, used to operate conventionally powered vehicles, are the same ones most drivers have used ever since they got their driver s license back in high school and first started driving.

Bottom-line — Driving hybrid cars with a heavy gas throttle and brake pedal foot will result in poorer miles-per-gallon/liters-per-100 kilometers fuel economy as compared to if they are driven in a Hybrid Friendly — Hybrid $mart manner.

NOW, THE GOOD NEWS: The good news in driving any car is that, according to testing by Edmunds.com, aggressive drivers who moderate their aggressive Gas-To-Go/Brake-To-Stop driving habits can improve their overall gas mileage by as much as 37-percent. Additionally, an aggressive driver can glean a 14-percent gain in fuel economy by simply staying below the Posted Maximum Legal Speed Limit and ratcheting back on their travel cruise speed.

EPA estimates that every 5 MPH incremental increase in travel speed above 60 MPH is like having to pay an extra 25-cents per gallon of gasoline at the pump.

The rest of the good news even if a driver operates a hybrid car like he or she is still driving their old conventional, 100% Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powered car, it will still deliver GOOD, EPA Matching MPG-FE, just not STELLAR MPG-FE, as defined by driving to surpass the EPA MPG-FE estimates. This is because Toyota, Honda and General Motors engineers have optimized the design of the Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD), Integrated Motor Assist (IMA), Green Line Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) Mild-Hybrid and Two-Mode (2Mode) gas-electric drive — system control hardware and software of their hybrid vehicles around the driving behaviors and expectations of a typical driver. Of course, their assumed typical driver is one who only knows how to drive and is experienced in driving an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), 100% conventionally-powered vehicle.

To cause your hybrid vehicle to regularly meet or surpass the EPA MPG-FE estimates, you have to learn to let the HSD, IMA or other hybrid system do the job it was designed to do by staying out of its way and stop using old energy robbing driving behaviors and techniques. You will find that adding, integrating and unobtrusively applying new hybrid-focused driving behaviors and top-level, elemental Hybrid Hypermiling Driving Techniques into driving your gasoline-electric hybrid car is a reasonably painless process.

Your efforts will be rewarded with delivery of stellar MPG-FE and not having to pay at the pump as much or as often as you did before you started driving your hybrid vehicle.

The more you learn to Drive Hybrid Smart, and work as an integral part of the HSD, IMA, Green Line BAS . Two-Mode (2Mode) or other hybrid system solution and their various features, the more you will converge on meeting or surpassing the EPA Miles Per Gallon (MPG) Fuel Economy (FE) Rating numbers promised on your hybrid fuel-sipper of choice’s window sticker.

LEARNING TO DRIVE GREEN TO $AVE GREEN BACK PETROLBUCK$. $$$$: Face it, gas prices will likely never be going down for very long. They never have in the past and will probably not start now.

Gas is selling for $3+ per gallon on its way to $4 and beyond, not 25ў as it was when the fuel wasting on-road driving behavior norms of today were formed. Whether we realize it or not, we all are now driving under a new fuel consumption and energy use paradigm.

Where a car once used to be a mechanized, gasoline-powered personal and family transportation work of art that functioned as one’s personal noble steed, it has since become a heavily government controlled and regulated transportation appliance whose fuel use generates tax revenue for the government.

I recognized this paradigm shift back a few years back, when gasoline was still selling for well under $1.499 per gallon. At that point, I purchased the hybrid Prius, and changed the driving and fuel consumption behaviors and techniques under which I operate my personal vehicle, successfully transforming myself into a Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving Zen Master.

With the expectation that $140± per barrel oil and $4.00± per gallon gasoline in pursuit of $5, $6, $8, $10+ and beyond returning , most $mart Folks out here in the Yankee Doodle hinterlands have started driving to save Green and will do anything legal to save a Green Back PetrolBuck.

I have transformed my previous Porsche Throttle-Pedal Honed driving habits and behaviors, and learned how to Drive Hybrid Smart by becoming an intelligent part of the Gas-Electric Hybrid Man-Machine Interface. I now drive with a feather-light, deft touch on the foot throttle. In Zen-like fashion, I have Become One With Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD), thereby, permitting it to regularly deliver $tellar MPG-FE, and Green Back $avings to me.

I employed a combination of fuel economy enhancing in-garage pre-operative set ups along with on-road operative Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving Techniques to pre-operatively set up and operate my 2G, Generation II Prius, and now to my new, 2012 Prius v fuel-sippered that replaced it. Using these techniques permits me to achieve money saving MPG-FE performance, and decrease the frequency and amount of making my Gas Tax donations to money hungry Big Government.

My Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving assured that I regularly meet or beat the old Pre-2008 EPA 51 Highway/55 Combined/60 City Estimated MPG-FE numbers for my 2G Prius, and now facilitates me surpassing the 2008 EPA 44 City/42 Combined/40 Highway Estimated MPG-FE numbers for my new in 2012 Prius v.

Yes, it does require a bit of Hybrid Driving Work, which for me has become second-nature Hybrid Driving Play. or should that be Hybrid Driving Pay. as in Pay Day.

My Hybrid Hypermiling enhanced EcoDriving is saving and Paying my family and me Big PetrolBucks by minimizing our family s monthly fuel burn rate and total annual gasoline fuel expenses. Hybrid Pseudo-Hypermiling / EcoDriving has reduced the monthly auto fuel expenses for my family’s primary transportation vehicle by

80%. At the mid-year peak to $4.00± per gallon for gasoline prices in 2008, this reduced the projected annual fuel expense for our primary transportation vehicle from $4310± down to $890±. The 80%, $3420, annual savings rate made the Family CFO, my wife, Hybrid Happy.

151-PLU$ MORE REA$ON$ FOR MAMA TO BE HAPPY : We recently returned from a Gran Turismo *Multi-Mille Miglia* open-road family motor trip *Fuel Economy Run* from my teepee located on Florida s Space Coast to Chicagoland and return, via I-95/I-10/I-75/I-24/I-65/I-94/I-57/I-24/I-65/I-10/I-95. 99.9% of the time I drove our Prius 2G with the ECC Cruise Control set on the Maximum Posted Legal Speed Limit (i.e. 70 MPH in FL, AL, GA, TN, KY, IN, and 65 in IL).

99% of the trip was driven with the HVAC set on AUTO, and TEMP set at 75 degrees. The Per-Tank-Full MPG Measurement Method was used.

Total My Garage-Return-To-My Garage/Chocks-To-Chocks Distance: 3153.3 miles. Trip MPG-FE: 54.9 MPG. Trip Fuel Cost: $151.90.

Pre-Operative Set-Up:

1, Only OEM/Stock Prius 2G Instrumentation Was Used (No ScanGauge, Tach, etc.).

2. Tire Pressure: OEM Goodyear *Integrity* Tires Up-Pressured To 48F/46R.

3. Motor Oil In Crankcase: 3.5 Qts 0W30 Mobil 1 Full-Synthetic, Adv. Fuel Economy.

4. Motor Fuel Used: Standard Gas Station Issue 90:10, E10 Gasohol.

5. Drive-Train/Running Gear Well-Broken In @60,000-miles

Driving Operating Modes/Techniques:

1. Ran HVAC From Fresh Air Vent Only Mode Through To Full-Time A/C AUTO Mode

2. When Accelerating From Dead Stop, Employed Acceleration Technique of iMPG iMPH/2 Transitioning To iMPG 1.1 To 1.2 Times iMPH While Passing Thru 40 To 50 MPH As Target Travel/Cruise Speed Was Approached.

3. *Hybrid Smart* Use of Freewheeling Regenerative Coasting, and Regenerative Braking.

4. Opportunistic Anticipatory Use of Advanced Fuel Conserving Warp-Stealth, Pulse Glide, Dash Coast, Driving With Load (DWL), Super *Atkinson* Highway Mode [SAHM/SHM], and Traffic Light Change Timing-Anticipation Techniques.

5. Drove at or below 66 MPH Fuel Economy Sweet Spot ECC Set Speed when travel conditions dictated, and where such fuel-efficient speeds were compatible with trip schedule.

NOW HEAR THIS! I HAVE MUCHO PSEUDO-GOOD NEWS: Even without applying full, Hybrid Zen Mastery when operating your hybrid car, you can become what I call a Pseudo-Hybrid Hypermiler / EcoDriver.

The focus of the discussion that follows is on the Second Generation (2G/GEN II/NHW20) 2004-2009 and Third Generation (3G/GEN III/ZVW30) 2010-2013 Prius Sedan Hatchback and the new in 2012 Prius v Station Wagon models with their Hybrid Synergy Drive System . Therefore, Prius owner-drivers who read, heed and directly apply the information that follows can immediately learn how to start converging on Stellar Miles Per Gallon — Fuel Economy (MPG-FE) numbers to consume even less fuel on their very next drive.

The discussion also has general applicability to any hybrid vehicles that employ Toyota’s Hybrid Snergy Drive (HSD) or licensed key elements of the T-HSD design to propel them. These other vehicles are:

HONDA Insight 1.3 IMA HE CVT Continuosuly Variable
HONDA Insight 1.3 IMA HE CVT Continuosuly Variable

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