Philippe B de l’Arc Histoire de la voiture electrique

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Honda Civic Hybrid (3rd gen)


Film Who Killed the Car ? . de Chris Paine Directed by Paine; edited by Michael and Chris A. Peterson; narrated by Sheen; produced by Jessie

Un documentaire sur la naissance et la mort de la lectrique, voquant galement la des nergies recyclables.

Le film l’ pop e de la GM EV-1 de 1997, une qui finira sa vie la casse.

A murder a call to arms and an effective to rage.

Manohla Dargis, The New Times

The little car that — once

So you’ve pulled away from the gas some $50 lighter and you’re the international headlines, despairing at the oil seeps through every news story, and you think: it be nice to have a car – maybe a electric runabout – that you from the petroleum-junkie mainline?

In you could have leased It was called the EV1, from Motors, and the hundreds of Californians who them fell inl ove with the only a human being can for a car.

Eight years GM took the cars back bucking protests in every — and had them crushed, and otherwise expunged from the Toyota scrapped its similar EV, citing poor sales. The industry has since concentrated its efforts on hydrogen fuel a technology that by common is decades from drive-away

The little car that could right now — was put down in its

Filmmaker Chris Paine to know: Who killed the electric

The answer is like the solution to Christie’s Murder on the Orient — just about had a hand. As this fierce, entertaining work of muckraking shows, the EV1 rolled off the production only because carmakers forced to make it available. The they didn’t have to, pretended it had never existed.

The EV1 and like it had existed as concept for some years before the Air Resources Board adopted the Emissions Vehicle mandate in requiring that 10 percent of all new sold in the state be emissions-free by Despite auto industry to repeal the mandate, General made its electric car available to the following year.

Those who the lease – and Paine corrals names on the order of Mel Gibson, Tom actress Alexandra Paul, and star Peter Horton to – found themselves with a dream car. The first of EV1s only ran up to 80 miles a but second-generation cars featured an battery that took figure up to 120. (Lithium-ion currently in development, goose it to as as 300 miles a charge.)

But automakers had no to support the new cars — EV1s needing far fewer the multimillion-dollar parts industry have languished — and PR were grudging and minimal. a few years, the landscape changed. GM and auto manufacturers sued to the CARB mandate, with the administration filing a friend of the brief.

The board’s new chairman, C. Lloyd. was a hydrogen fuel advocate who effectively gutted the rules. In 2004, GM (which had bought the gas-guzzling Humvee its initial owners) took the EV1s, promising they be used for educational and institutional

Unconvinced, Paine chartered a flew over GM testing in Arizona, and filmed dozens of the lying crushed like tin EV1 lovers held a mock and eventually staked out one last in a Burbank GM lot. When the were removed for destruction, the were arrested.

Who Killed the Car? taps the pampered-Hollywood-celeb for color only; more we hear from CARB and GM members, electric-car scientists, oil gurus, alternate-fuel experts, the old couple who developed the second-generation EV1 members of the Carter, Reagan, and administrations, and Ralph Nader. The passionate voice, though, may to Chelsea Sexton, a perky EV1 salesperson who has become one of the foremost activists and whose cheerleader puts the urgency of the matter better than Tom Hanks could.

Goliath won the first someone says here, that the landscape may be tipping yet Gas-electric hybrids are becoming and more popular; the Iraq War and fuel prices are creating a of desperation that may yet translate a culturechanging momentum. Or maybe Paine properly includes the American consumer in his lineup of the

The only question his movie ask is What do you want your car to run on?

That’s up to you.

The Boston Film Review, July 7,

Who Killed the Electric Car? is a tool pertinent to many disciplines and adaptable to a variety of learning styles, and classroom This rich, self-contained requires little or no additional on the part of the instructor or the class, but can be as the foundation for independent student The film divides neatly two nearly equal and independent that can be shown on successive or at different points in a unit.

segments offer excellent opportunities.

The classroom experience of taking courses on environmental or offerings that include a on air quality or environmental concerns be enriched by viewing Who Killed the Car. Courses that interest in engineering and practical applications would also

The ethical and civic questions the film explores offer a connection for teachers working in the of civics, government, ethics, and ethics. In many of these the film could be treated as a study. The ethical questions are nearly unlimited and a large of higher-level-thinking activities can be developed the film.

Included in this are discussion prompts, class and research suggestions.

— summary

Who Killed the Electric is presented as a who done- it mystery. true to this genre, the opens with necessary information, describes the crime answering all of the what, where, and questions, and then in the style of Sir Conan Doyle gathers the for close scrutiny, coming to a on the guilt or innocence of each.

Opening with a bit of automotive that establishes the electric car as a alternative to the internal combustion Who Killed the Electric Car? the viewer back to the beginning of the century and the dawn of the automotive A straightforward explanation of why gasoline out electricity as the fuel of choice and how the combustion engine wins concludes the broad overview.

The then moves to the recent with the introduction of the California Air Board and their 1990 to require that ten percent of all sold in California by each car be zero-emission vehicles by the year The Dr. Jekyll and Mr.

Hyde response of companies is revealed; production and of zero-emission cars is detailed, a during which the legal and teams of the same manufacturers to defeat the law that gave to modern electric vehicles.

several manufacturers are included, the Motors electric vehicle is As this segment concludes, the of the industry’s legal strategy is by a celebrity-studded funeral for the electric This segment is filled factual analysis that conflicting claims about practicality, costs of various and consumer demand.

The second of Who Killed the Electric Car? is Holmes at his best. The seven identified in the first half of the are scrutinized. One by one, consumers, oil companies, auto manufacturers, the government, the California Air Resources and the newest villain, the hydrogen pass under the bare in the inspector’s interrogation room in an to answer the question asked in the title: Who Killed the Electric

At the end of each segment the featured is judged as guilty or innocent.

The ends on a positive note, a grassroots movement that cleaner air and energy independence. In a Kennedy-style appeal, the film that those who solve our conundrum will be those change the world.

— scences for classroom review

Discussion prompts

These can be used for full-class discussion, group conversations, or adapted for use as assignments of varying length and

What compromises related to and transportation are you willing to make to and improve air quality? Brainstorm and then discuss each focusing on the average consumer.

one assertion in the film do you disagree Why?

What one assertion in the troubles you the most? Why?

In own words, explain why the car manufacturers and destroyed the electric vehicles.

Did serve the people in the case of cars? Why?

Does have the right to tell what to manufacture? Why?

How an issue is our nation’s dependence on Explain.

Do you agree that who solve the energy question change the world? Explain.

the world oil supply be divided according to population, given to able to pay the highest price, or for developing nations? Explain opinion.

Is it acceptable for a nation to use oil as a Why/why not?

Would you each of the following as a good or a bad citizen? Why? -The oil -The automobile companies consumers -Scientists researching fuel -The citizens to save the electric car

Is energy a security issue? Why/how?

How is the use of hydrogen as a fuel related to the of nuclear power?

Does for more oil in the pristine wilderness sense? Why/why not?

the information provided in the film, do you electric cars are a reasonable to combustion engines? Why/why

Given the information provided in the do you believe you will be able to buy a car in the next 10 years? 20 years? Why/why not?

Choose and prosecution teams for each of the defendants identified in the film. the teams prepare for a mock using the information in the film and if additional research. Stage a with a jury that has not the film.


Judge: as presiding officer maintaining resolving conflicts, and charging the

Prosecution team: Presents against the named defendant witnesses, charts, graphs, and

evidence. The team would cross-examine defense witnesses. The job is to prove beyond a reasonable the guilt of the defendant.

Defense Presents evidence that the prosecution’s view and may suggest perpetrators. The defense may use witnesses, graphs, and physical evidence. The would also cross-examine witnesses.

The defense’s job is to create doubt as to the guilt of the defendant.

activity can be used as an alternative of student knowledge while building critical thinking and presentation skills.

— Good

Open the activity by the paragraph below. Allow for a few of general comment on the concept of the good and the claim by then president Charles E. Wilson:

good for the country is good for Motors and vice versa.

The to the United States Constitution with the words: We the People of the States, in Order to form a perfect Union, establish insure domestic Tranquility, for the common defense, promote the Welfare, and secure the Blessings of to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and this Constitution for the United of America. These words a common interest that is by citizens and government, a concept referred to as the common good.. In the then president of General Charles E. Wilson, was nominated by Dwight Eisenhower to serve as his of Defense.

During Wilson’s hearings, senators were that he would have making a decision that hurt General Motors, a defense contractor, even if the was in the best interest of the United When asked this Wilson assured senators he could make such a but that he could not imagine a situation, because for years I what was good for the country was for General Motors and vice

Student instruction

Who Killed the Car? implies that the good is not being served by the to abandon electric vehicles and hydrogen technology. Write own definition of the common good. groups of 3 to 5 and share these Try to agree on a group definition.

General Motors’ decision to the electric car program in light of group’s definition. Be ready to your findings to the class. Do Mr. thoughts from 1953 the General Motors Corporation is presented in the film?

If the Senate the current president of G.M. to the death of the electric car, what he might say that be quoted more than 50 later.

— Hidden

Teacher introduction

As a class, about the term hidden When you get all the ideas on the board, groups of 3 to 5. In groups, have the discuss the ideas on the board and write a definition of hidden that the group can agree on. As a share these definitions and one working definition for the whole

Have students return to groups and discuss what agenda(s) the following may have To make a claim, the group have at least one piece of evidence from the film. group should decide three of their claims are the and prepare to present them to the

Present and discuss about agenda (evidences).

Automobile — Oil companies — — Car companies — government — Fans of the car — C.A.R.B.

— is the role of business?

What is the of business in a democratic/capitalist society? The interaction between business, and consumers is presented as a case in Who Killed the Electric Car. viewing the film, clarify own attitude toward the role of before any discussion, by using the that follow. Prioritize the list from 1, most to 10, least important, and then just a sentence or two that each ranking.

Using results, make groups include individuals with attitudes. While you discuss the analyze how different views of influence opinions about the

The role of business is to make a — The role of business is to a good product — The of business is to serve the consumer The role of business is to support — The role of business is to government — The role of is to educate consumers — The of business is to improve life The role of business is to protect the — The role of business is to consumers with choice The role of business is to invent to society’s problems.

— is the role of government?

What is the of government in a democratic/capitalist society? The interaction between business, and citizens is presented as a case in Who Killed the Electric Car. viewing the film, clarify own attitude toward the role of before any discussion, by using the that follow. Prioritize the list from 1, most to 10, least important, and then just a sentence or two that each ranking. Using results, make groups include individuals with attitudes.

While you discuss the analyze how different views of influence opinions about the

The role of government is to defend the — The role of government is to a just society — The of government is to protect the consumer The role of government is to protect — The role of government is to business — The role of is to educate consumers — The of government is to improve life for all — The role of government is to the environment — The role of is to provide consumers with — The role of government is to solutions to society’s problems.

Making the case

In the second of Who Killed the Electric Car. of the suspects in this mystery is up to scrutiny. Acting as an unbiased develop a list of the evidence for guilt and the evidence that innocence. In groups or as a class, use evidence lists as the basis for a that leads to a vote on suspect.

The suspect. Evidence to / Evidence to acquit

Brian pour Sony Pictures 2007

Brian Daniels history and ethics at Hudson School, Hudson, Massachusetts. He is the facilitator for the democratic school at Hudson High and an active of the school’s First Amendment team. He has been teaching for years and holds bachelor’s in history and psychology from College and a master’s degree in and creative thinking from the of Massachusetts at Boston.

He will the Curriculum Director for English and Studies grades 6-12 in the school district in the summer of He has been published several in the Boston Globe and has an article for publication in October of 2006 in the Social Studies Supervisors magazine.

Who killed my electric

I drive an electric car. Not a — a gasoline-powered car that some help from an motor — but a full vehicle. I plug it in at night and can 100 miles the next day and go faster 80 mph on the highway.

So don’t think cart; these cars power and pick-up.

While you see many electric cars on the they’ve been around than you might think.

In electric cars outsold gasoline and steam vehicles electric cars didn’t the vibration, noise and dirtiness with gas vehicles. But soon — with the discovery of crude oil that reduced the of gasoline, the invention of the electric in 1912 that eliminated the for a hand crank, and the mass of internal combustion engine by Henry Ford — the vehicle went the way of the horse and

The energy crisis in the 1960s and revived interest briefly. was another push in 1990, General Motors Corp. the (ineptly named) Impact, a aerodynamic electric car prototype.

In 1998 the California Air Resources decided that if a car company make such a car, it and mandated that 2 percent of sold in the state in 1998 be emission-free, with that rising to 10 percent by 2003.

California is a huge market, Toyota, Nissan, Chrysler, and GM started building electric — about 5,000 manufactured. But by 2005 the mandate had eviscerated because of pressure those same car companies, and perfectly good electric were crushed.

But did car companies want electric cars to The success of electric vehicles have threatened the status quo and business models of two of the world’s industries — oil and automobile. It is expedient for these companies to lip service to hydrogen in an attempt to green.

But hydrogen is a technology experts say is decades away.

the small print in California’s allowed for car companies to manufacture as many cars as there was in them, the game became to there was no interest. Virtually no money was spent to let you know cars existed, and even if you did out about them salespeople dissuaded you from getting

As with any new technology, an electric was more expensive than its gas Also, the limited range off customers, even though the American drives only 34 a day and every electric car could go at twice that far on a full

These cars had great but no media covered their crushing. It is only with the this summer of the documentary Who the Electric Car? that the story comes out.

film chronicles the rise and of the General Motors EV1, an car I leased on the day it was released in 1996. to 60 mph in 7.4 seconds, a top speed of 140 mph and a range of 120 GM discontinued this car just a few later.

No car company today a mass-production electric vehicle.

My electric vehicle, a Toyota EV, also was discontinued a few years This car costs me the equivalent of 60 a gallon to run. I never to get a tune-up, change spark or add water to the batteries or oil to the motor. The maintenance for the first 150,000 is to rotate my tires. This car is fast and emission free.

I it in every night at home, and it on off-peak energy.

Even if it getting power solely electricity derived from — a common criticism of cars — my vehicle 50 percent less carbon than a 24 mpg gas car (for a summary of than 30 studies on the emissions of cars, hybrids and plug in go to When I have to get new which I expect I’ll be when my car is 10 years old, the old will be over 90 percent

The concern I hear most about electric vehicles is range. Well, at 100 miles per my electric vehicle fulfills 98 of my driving needs, and I live in a where everything seems to be 40 away.

When I want to go I borrow my husband Ian’s Prius. I don’t like it. Am I supposed to be amazed when a car 43 miles per gallon? The average economy mandate for cars in 27.5 mpg. For 2006: mpg.

No wonder our expectations are so Progress in fuel efficiency has glacial compared to improvements in and cell phones.

There is a The plug-in hybrid. This will run on pure electric for up to 60 miles, and then automatically to gas (or a biofuel) if you drive farther. around 85 percent of Americans less than 50 miles a this means that people who charge their at home each night hardly ever dip into car’s gasoline tank.

The to charge is already in place outlets are everywhere), and the technology has been tested in the field and improved upon for over 15 National security experts, former CIA Director James are advocates for these vehicles they say these vehicles can break our dependence on foreign Environmentalists support them plugging in means getting an of more than 100 mpg.

like them because will be saving thousands of in gasoline costs.

Once you known the quiet smooth and the clean efficiency of an electric you will never think cart agaiin.

Alexandra Los Angeles, California, in Earthsave 12.2006

March 9, 2005 22): Alexandra standing in of the worst GM product, holding a of the best GM product

Editor’s Alexandra Paul is an actress known for her four years in the television series Baywatch. She has driving electric vehicles 1990 and is a founding member of in America. Paul can be seen in the Who Killed the Electric Car?

is also vegan.

Why Electric par l’ EEA (Electric Auto No engine.

No gas tank.

No tailpipe.


No noise.

No kidding!

So what’s an car, really?

High batteries store electricity, and an motor provides propulsion zero emissions.

Sounds Can I get one?

The automakers produced electric cars to meet Zero Emission Vehicle Thousands of people have the cars and want to buy one. But spent millions lobbying in sued in federal court and eviscerated the mandate.

Now Toyota, GM, and are confi scating and destroying of electric cars, despite of cash from satisfied Only a small number of cars were ever for sale in California. They out quickly.

The automakers won’t sell you the electric cars already made. They are them instead. They sell gas cars. Makes you

Electric cars are very No oil changes, no tune ups. EVs fewer than 1/10th as parts as a gas car.

No engine, spark plugs, valves, tank, distributor, starter, muffler or catalytic converter.


RAV4 EV Specifications

Range 80 125 miles

Top Speed 80 mph (governed)

3480 pounds

Motor perm. magnet

Batteries 24 NiMH

Voltage 288-volt

Charger 220 volts/30 amp; 5kW

5kW inductive Battery Capacity:

— How many miles can the EV go between charges?

The RAV4 EV has a range of about 125 miles on one charge. But you can add charge anytime. You can up at many Costcos. And it’s

— How fast does it

Less than a good sleep. It charges about 20% per

— Where do you charge?

in one’s garage overnight, but are public chargers as well.

— Is it expensive to charge?

Honda hybrid Civic

A or two to fi ll up.

— Aren’t electric inefficient?

Battery EVs are the most cars on the road:

Toyota EV: 887 BTU/mile

Toyota Prius: BTU/mile

Toyota RAV4 4423 BTU/mile

RAV4 EV 112 MPG equivalent.

— Aren’t a better alternative?

Pros: emissions than most cars ; Somewhat better mileage ; Longer range pure battery electric.

Gasoline only. Can’t in ; Still dependent on oil companies and despots ; Not zero emissions.

Isn’t hydrogen a solution?

No. fuel cell cars one million dollars each and are 4X less effi cient battery EVs if the hydrogen is produced electricity. 1.4X less from natural gas. and how will the hydrogen be stored? Who pay for this new infrastructure? (Us taxpayers?)

What about the pollution making the electricity? Aren’t you moving the pollution?

No. Even coal, emissions are lower EVs. And moving the pollution from population centers is a thing. But there’s more.

have plenty of spare capacity at night, which charge millions of EVs. And we can clean the grid and increase like wind and solar, the cleanest gasoline car becomes more polluting. An electric car creates emissions.

It just cleaner as the grid get cleaner.

Plug-in hybrids offer the of both worlds!

— Solar on your roof and an EV you true zero emissions Exactly what we need.

What can I do?

Say no to oil! Tell the and dealers you won’t buy another new car you can buy an electric or plug-in hybrid Buy an electric scooter or bike. Buy a CNG Buy a diesel and use biodiesel.

Take transit (lots of electric!). Walk.

Buy or make an electric

Put solar (photovoltaics) on your

Join the Electric Auto

Electric car resources:

La fin du tout-p D’ici vingt ans, le de v hicules va augmenter de 50 alors que la d’or noir diminuera. Il donc urgent d’ l’essence et de commencer la remplacer. Mod les biocarburants, GPL, gaz naturel. des existent. La France les explore bien peu

Les chiffres du transport tre tourn s dans tous les ils ne tiennent pas la route. Aujourd’hui, le mondial automobile compte 700 millions de v hicules. D’ici ans, avec le d veloppement de dits mergents, comme la et l’Inde, il devrait augmenter de !

Une projection vertigineuse qui deviendra quadrature du cercle s’il abreuver tous ces moteurs en p celui-ci pollue, et ses r serves ne pas infinies. Laissons aux futurologues la exacte de sa disparition et contentons-nous perspective raisonnable: autour de la production de l’hydrocarbure-roi commencera d cliner…

De toute urgence, doit trouver non pas un, mais syst mes de propulsion, car l’automobile, ne dispara tra pas de nos soci t s, pronostique le d put Gatignol (UMP), auteur, Christian Cabal (UMP), rapport r cent sur la voiture du Ouf! Nos hommes politiques tent enfin. Les constructeurs La semaine prochaine, Carlos jusque-l tr s discret en mati re d voilera la strat gie de Renault les trois prochaines ann es.

De son c t , le groupe n (PSA) a pr sent mardi deux bijoux de technologie, une 307 et une C 4 moteurs Diesel et lectrique. Le Au d marrage, l’arr t ou en progression un calculateur lectronique d clenche la lectrique. Puis, lorsque la acc l re au-del de 50 kilom tres par un moteur classique prend le

D’o une importante r duction de la en carburant et de la pollution urbaine.

En lan ant dans ce projet, nous ne attendions pas aboutir une pareille technologique, s’enflamme Alain directeur du programme syst mes automobiles avanc es de PSA. Et Avec 3,4 litres pour 100 tres et 90 grammes de CO2 mis par kilom soit 30 de moins qu’un mod le classique, cette C 4 s’impose la voiture familiale compacte la propre au monde. Une performance rougir les Japonais de Toyota, avant tout le monde, ont mis sur le un mod le hybride essence- lectrique.

un demi-million d’exemplaires depuis sa en 1997, la Prius constitue la re r ussite industrielle d’une nouvelle.

Forts de cet exemple, et presque dix ans de retard, nombre de ses tentent donc, leur de surfer sur cette vague Le dernier grand Salon Detroit (Etats-Unis), qui fermait ses la semaine derni re, fourmillait de mod les et d’annonces, comme celle de qui pr voit d’ quiper, 2010, la moiti de ses produits de s hybrides… De son c t , la marque au lion esp re ses engins la m me ch ance et en priorit les pays o le diesel est fortement .

D fi majeur: tendre vers un plus propre

Doter une m me de deux moteurs: l’id e, s est pourtant loin de faire . Pour certains acteurs de automobile, le surco t (4 000 euros) et les perspectives de march (3,5 en ne m ritent pas tant de bruit. De fa on g n ils ne croient pas en une forme r volutionnaire de et pr f rent concentrer leurs de d veloppement sur les moteurs et les carburants. Or, que l’homme a mis le pied sur l’acc l l’essence s’est impos e, non raison, comme la solution la satisfaisante: ressource abondante, bon march , facile extraire, et stocker contrairement ses challengers hydrog ne, etc.), elle de, enfin, d’excellentes qualit s tiques.

Bref, faute de direct, les moteurs thermiques ont encore de belles ann es devant D’autant qu’ils se montrent gourmands et qu’ils vont tre une cure d’amincissement. D j , en une trentaine es, leur consommation a chut de 18 les mod les essence et de 25 pour les diesels.

Et les sp estiment pouvoir encore r leur cylindr e (de 3 1,8 litre, par tout en conservant les m mes rendements.

vainqueur de ces volutions, le moteur repr sente, chez les deux tiers des immatriculations. Un ph nom ne, au d tr s frenchy — nos constructeurs massivement investi dans fili re — qui a progressivement la moiti du march europ en. De un mod le diesel est plus propre et en moyenne 20 de moins qu’une essence, gr ce une palanqu e d’innovations: directe, turbocompresseur, filtre etc.

Depuis vingt les recherches ont b n fici au diesel, nous entrevoyons d sormais les technologiques, estime Philippe responsable de la technologie au d partement de nierie m canique de Renault. D notre objectif consiste l’essentiel de ces avanc es sur le moteur classique.

Parall lement, la conception des engins ne changera pas un autre d fi majeur va obnubiler le de l’automobile: tendre vers un plus propre pour moins d’hydrocarbures et mettre de gaz effet de serre. D’ici la l gislation europ enne aux raffineries de baisser la teneur en de 50 10 parties par million (ppm) une meilleure combustion des moteurs Mais ce chantier environnemental aussi nos… agriculteurs, la France se tourne, in luctablement, les biocarburants, issus de produits

Lors de sa conf rence de e, au mois de septembre 2005, de Villepin c l brait l’av de l’ re de l’apr s-p trole en d’acc l rer l’adjonction de ces carburants dans le super et le gazole la hauteur de 5,75 d’ici puis de 7 en 2010 et de 10 en 2015. La est raide, mais la route est aurait pu dire le Premier en citant son pr d cesseur — nous partons de loin. au-del de l’effet d’annonce, les sont en parfait d calage la r alit , comme Bruxelles r cemment rappel Paris par diaire d’une lettre avec un taux actuel en de de 2 , ne respectons m me pas les directives europ

Il existe deux types de biocarburants: le biodiesel, tir de plantes ol (essentiellement du colza) et le m thanol, qui tre ais ment m lang au gazole; et, l’essence, l’ thanol, de la fermentation des sucres et de certaines es (betterave, canne sucre, bl , de terre, ma s). En 2005, la France a un peu plus de 400 000 tonnes de biocarburants ( 1 du total des carburants), avec une tr s inclination (80 ) pour le biodiesel, sous le nom de Diester. Un d s quilibre qui en partie, par la pr pond rance du dans l’Hexagone, dont la quence premi re aura t une drastique de la production de super.

encore, de l’ thanol, que cette consommation est en chute est mal per u par l’industrie p troli re, souligne Cuypers, pr sident de l’Association le d veloppement des carburants agricoles

A l’inverse, int gr au gazole, dont la a atteint 31 millions de tonnes en le Diester ne rencontre pas autant de r Afin de r pondre aux demandes du l’ensemble de la profession du biodiesel va d 250 millions d’euros dans la cr de nouvelles usines, insiste Tillous-Borde, pr sident de Diester Un investissement colossal qui doublera capacit de production 700 000 tonnes la fin de l’ann e.

Aucun carburant ne remplacera jamais le p trole, la multiplication des fili res de substitution de retarder sa fin, in luctable. d velopper les produits d riv s de l’or comme le gaz de p trole liqu fi Troisi me source de motorisation la plan te, il a largement t adopt en (1,2 million d’utilisateurs), en (1 million) ou encore aux Pays-Bas. En il a t encourag l’exc s: 200 millions ont ainsi t engloutis pour 2 000 stations-service!

Un r seau aujourd’hui , puisque l’Hexagone ne compte que 180 000 Chez nous, le GPL souffre v ritable d ficit d’image la d’une s rie d’explosions, comme V en 1999. Mais il n’y a pas que a: les publics italiens se montrent plus constants que les n tres leurs choix, regrette ois-Xavier Dagnas, du Comit ais du butane et du propane (CFBP).

le gouvernement Villepin vient de d de supprimer le cr dit d’imp t (2 000 euros) sur la des v hicules GPL sous pr texte que missions en gaz carbonique sont lev es. Une d cision surprenante, alors m me que les aux particuliers reprenaient lentement deux ans…

Le GNV, id al limiter les missions de CO2

Manque de politique long terme, aussi mauvaise volont des fran ais. Tel est le mal dont l’autre fili re gazi re de celle du gaz naturel pour v (GNV). Il repr sente, la voie royale pour les missions de CO2 dans le secteur des soutient Richard Tilagone, de projet carburant gazeux fran ais du p trole (IFP). compte 10 000 v hicules fonctionnant au Mais tous ou presque des collectivit s locales ou des soci t s autobus, camions-bennes, petits

C t particuliers, faute d’offre, le d sert. Seul Citro n un mod le au GNV, une C 3, condition de disposer soi d’un compresseur qui, sur le r seau local de Gaz de France, de nourrir l’engin. A l’heure Renault tudie des versions gaz de la Clio et, plus surprenant, de la destin e au march … iranien.

que, hors de nos fronti le GNV, comme le GPL, un franc succ s: 1,3 million en Argentine, 1 million au Br sil, 400 encore, en Italie. La France, se distingue nouveau par son choix diesel, qui n’incite pas les constructeurs sur le march des solutions diff

Cette exception fran se retrouve aussi dans propension nous engager sur des de traverse. Comment, en effet, ter autrement le soutien sans dont b n ficie la voiture alors que la plupart des grandes ont abandonn leurs programmes apr s une d d’ checs (lire Aujourd’hui encore, deux Serge Dassault (propri de L’Express) et Vincent Bollor y des fortunes.

M me interrogation pour la combustible, port e au pinacle par les alors que sa transposition dans une construite en s rie semble inaccessible un bon quart de si cle… D’ici l , le r climatique aura fait son le p trole sera une ressource aussi pr cieuse que l’or et nos n’auront plus le choix: eux condamn s prendre la route des alternatives.

Bruno D. Cot, 1.2.2006

March, 2006. and GM, the world’s two largest automakers, end research on hydrogen-powered fuel because they could not on sharing intellectual property from their hydrogen cell research.

Salon — Ecologic Vehicles Energies Monaco, du 30 mars au 2 2006

PME — PMI — Les v lectriques en milieu rural

tre pour agir

Les transports, rement d pendants du p trole, l’origine d’un tiers de la totale d’ nergie en Il sont aussi responsables part importante de la pollution de La consommation de carburant engendre 35 des de CO2, gaz bien connu sa responsabilit dans l’aggravation de de serre.

Pour favoriser la r des missions polluantes, l’Ademe les solutions propres et conomes.

e EDF, l’Ademe soutient de Patrice Wadbled, boulanger en Thi (Aisne) qui, pour d’une impasse conomique, a ses v hicules de livraison par des voitures pour le plus grand b n de l’environnement.Aujourd’hui son entreprise est p renne et aux habitants de sa r gion les avantages service artisanal de proximit . En M. Wadbled d veloppe depuis de 5 ans une action qui s’inscrit pleinement une perspective de d veloppement durable.

Int un parc de v hicules lectriques. une valorisante et valorisable,

l’exemple de Thi Panification

Pour faire des difficult s conomiques dues une le locale dispers e sur un large Patrice Wadbled, boulanger en rural depuis plus de 30 recentre en 1989 son activit sur la itin rante. Les frais de relatifs l’utilisation de son parc diesel l’am nent au d jusqu’en 2001 o il d cide de son parc par des voitures lectriques.

Un totalement positif sur le long

R organiser les tourn es

А Thi rache on a organis les tourn es de la fa on suivante. les six Citro n sont branch s par en charge rapide pendant que les font leur tourn e. Les partent pour 2 ou 3 heures et 1/2 heure d’intervalle, rempla ant v hicule par la voiture charg e. Ils ainsi 3 fois de v hicule 5 h et 11 h 30 et couvrent pr s de 40 000 km/an/v hicule Patrice Wadbled.

Augmenter des batteries

M.Wadbled affirme nos tourn es on arrive jusqu’ 130 km L’effet m moire des batteries tre boost en les d chargeant compl pour qu’elles se rechargent au ; il faut compter 5000 km de Pour les recharger, vous le choix entre l’option de la prise m nag re classique 16 amp res et la borne de rapide sp cifique qui permet de r cup rer de 90 95 de en une 1/2 heure.

D passer les difficult s

Pendant les 3 premiers mois o avons eu les v hicules, c’ l’enfer. Nous avons d l’autonomie des batteries et r soudre pas mal de mes par des solutions maison comme la en place d’un filtre au de refroidissement. Pour viter les mes moteurs, on a assoupli notre de conduite en r duisant les vitesses et en les acc l rations brutales. Ce mode de fluide et sans -coup est conseill pour les v hicules puisque c’est ainsi r duit la consommation de carburant et les rejets polluants.

La voiture c’est l’auto de l’avenir. accompagnement, les d buts ont t vraiment mais aujourd’hui je ne regrette

Un avantage financier ind niable

Ce montre clairement l’avantage que g n rent les v hicules lectriques. l’ conomie ne s’arr te pas l , le souligne Patrice Wadbled. gagne m me davantage, car dans le cas des es, un moteur diesel tourne les arr ts alors qu’un v hicule s’arr te et ne s’use pas.

lectricit /essence effectu par M.

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