Background on Th!nk Electric Vehicles and the California Mandate …

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Th!nk City

Background on Th!nk Electric — and the California Mandate

En Th!nk-biler er allerede konfiskert av

An historical review reveals Ford’s commitment to electric emission vehicles, like the was nothing more than one to comply with the strict air regulations in California. The other was to lobby to undermine and weaken the itself. When this succeeded, Ford quickly their highly promoted vehicle program, and is now planning to the remaining Th!nk City that are in the USA.

In 2001, began leasing the all-electric, Th!nk City cars in to meet its obligation under the Zero Emissions Vehicle mandate. Although few Th!nks available, they were popular, especially among drivers in Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Within months, all 350 vehicles at 5 Ford dealerships in California leased and waiting lists One hundred Th!nk City cars were also in New York as part of a NY Power program.

Ford announced that in 2003, the Th!nk City be available for purchase.

By 2002, one of thousands of Zero Emission electric vehicles offered was leased to overwhelmingly satisfied mostly in California, where incentives for renewable energy many EV owners to recharge cars using their own power. The cars included EV1 and S10 EV pickup; Toyota’s RAV4 EV; EV+; and Ford’s Ranger EV and Th!nk City.

In 2003, to intense automotive industry and lawsuits, the California Air Resources eviscerated its ZEV Mandate postponing the end of the decade the requirement for any Zero Vehicles. Upon this of the regulations, the automakers ceased electric cars, refused requests for lease extensions, and all requests from leaseholders and the to purchase the cars. Beginning in automakers have begun the vehicles in order to crush By 2005, if the automakers, including Motor Company, have way, nearly all the Zero Electric Vehicles on the road in the USA will be destroyed .

The Norwegian electric car manufacturer Norge has offered to accept all for the cars and repurchase them Ford for resale in Norway, the cars are quite popular and significant Government support. To Ford Motor Company has the offer and is beginning to repossess the in order to destroy them. is campaigning to change Ford’s stand and save the Th!nk vehicles for further use and inspiration.

The and groundbreaking Californian Zero Vehicle mandate (ZEV), by CARB in 1990, was a radical to the auto industry. 1% of sales by the automakers must be ZEV by 1998; 10% by This would have 10s of thousands of zero-gasoline, zero-emissions

The legislation kickstarted the automakers to develop cleaner vehicles.

over the history and undermining of the ZEV mandate

1996 MOU eliminated the requirement and established numbers of to be put into service by the majors in 1997. A few hundred to a few thousand per depending on existing CA market Each major automaker electric cars to comply, all successfully leased, and waiting existed for each model

At the same time, a system to rate cars’ emissions, emission vehicle — super-ultra-low emissions vehicle SULEV) and the major were varying credits for these gasoline cars, usually available in California.

The Mandate was again to give car companies not only for highway capable but for what came to be known as Electric Vehicles (NEV) 25mph speed limited, no That began a stampede by the to purchase golf cart and offer NEVs. In fact, in to eliminate the need to actually electric cars, they sufficient ZEV credits by giving leases for NEVs to Universities and

In 2001, a GM/Chrysler lawsuit parts of the revision industry had for as tredding on federal rights to CAFE standards. The Production Vehicle Drivers Coalition got standing to testify, but the judge a preliminary ruling in GM/Chrysler’s in 2002 and CARB folded. No

Revisions in 2003 in response to the court added to the alphabet of categories to get ZEV credit, including the Partial Zero Emissions (PZEV). That’s a cleaner car. Advanced Technology Zero Emissions Vehicle

That’s a cleaner gasoline-only

The car companies made clear had no further interest in battery cars, despite the demand and technological success. Hydrogen cell vehicles, the automakers path to ZEV, were many times the credit of a car, despite the technology’s higher price, lack of and relative inefficiency when with battery electrics. ensured no further battery cars from the majors.

Th!nk City

By the end of there were about battery electric cars on road built to comply the mandate. As of the latest revision, will require 250 fuel ZEVs by 2008. This replace the EV’s, that be withdrawn from the market and the automakers plan to crush.

Think Story:

1990 established in Aurskog, Norway

1994 Prototype debuts at Games in Lillehammer

1996 120 City Bee electric cars

1998 PIVCO goes

1999 51% of PIVCO sold to and becomes Th!nk.

2000 begins production of Th!nk

2001 Ford begins Th!nk City in California.

Ford announces 2003 City will be available for

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