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Electric Car Conversions The Benefits for You

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(The following is an excerpt  Build Your Own Electric by Seth Leitman and Bob Brant 2008). The excerpt is Chapter 1: Why Vehicles Are Still Right for The book is a comprehensive resource for interested in electric car conversions, the advantages of electric cars, the right car for a conversion, the components of an vehicle drivetrain, batteries, and resources to learn more and with other electric car enthusiasts.)

Why should anyone convert, or build an electric car Simply put, they are the most efficient, and most form of transportation around — and are really fun to drive. When I for the State of New York, we always to say that electric cars almost maintenance free: never require oil changes, new plugs, or any other regular When a person would “Really?” I would then “Well, not quite — you need to the washer fluid for the windshield.”

vehicles (EVs) are highly and part of everyday society: cars are found on mountaintops trams, cable cars), at the of the sea (submarines, Titanic explorer), on the (Lunar Rover), in tall (elevators), in cities (subways, rail, buses, delivery hauling heavy rail or moving rail passengers (Pennsylvania Railroad Washington to New corridor). Are they all electric Yes.

Do they run on rails or in or on tethers or with nonrechargeable Yes.

EVs were designed to do was wanted in the past and can be designed and to do whatever is needed in the future. do you need an EV to be: big, small, fast, ultra-efficient? Design to that need. General EV1 is an excellent example of what can be when starting with a sheet of paper.

Closer to and the subject of this book, do you an EV car, pickup, or van? You

As car companies continue producing utility vehicles (SUVs) cannot meet federal standards or reduce emissions are harmful to our environment, think some of the statistics and facts the U.S. Department of Energy and various notable sources: The DOE that more than of the oil we use every day is imported. This of dependence on imports (55 percent) is the in our history. The DOE even goes on to say this dependence on foreign oil increase as we use up domestic resources.

as a national security issue, we all be concerned that the vast of the world’s oil reserves are concentrated in the East (65 to 75 percent), and controlled by the of the OPEC oil cartel.

Further, DOE on to state that 133 million live in areas that at least one National Ambient Air Standard. Transportation vehicles 25 to 75 percent of key chemicals that the air, causing smog and problems. All new cars must federal emissions standards.

But as get older, the amount of pollution produce increases.

In addition, about 20 percent of the energy in the you put in your gas tank gets to move your car down the or run useful accessories like air or power steering. The rest of the is lost. Clearly the potential to fuel economy with technologies is enormous.

What can we do? electric cars. Here are reasons why.

1. Although are only at a relatively embryonic in terms of market penetration, cars represent the most friendly vehicle fuel, as have absolutely no emissions. The generated to power the EV and the energy to the vehicle is 97 percent cleaner in of noxious pollutants.

2. Another of electric motors is their to provide power at almost any speed. Whereas only 20 percent of the chemical energy in gets converted into work at the wheels of an internal vehicle, 75 percent or more of the from a battery reaches its

3. One of the big arguments made by car companies electric cars is that EVs are by power plants, which are primarily by coal. Less 2 percent of U.S. electricity is from oil, so using as a transportation fuel would reduce dependence on imported

4. Even assuming that the to power the EV is not produced from solar or natural gas (let’s it comes 100 percent from it is still much cleaner gasoline produced from

5. The power plants are stationary that can be modified over to become cleaner.

The major facing the electric vehicle are range, top speed, and cost. it’s the batteries that determine the cost and performance of The only way electric vehicles are to make a big difference in people’s is if they can do everything a gas car can do and more.

have to look great and have to be safe.

Conversions use approved car frames and have going on for years with gas using performance-based engines and With controllers (basically, the reaching 1,000 to 2,000 high-end car batteries, and the light of a Porsche 911 chassis, electric can provide respectable performance. are fun to drive, virtually silent, and coast very easily you let off the accelerator pedal.

In other you can convert an old Porsche 911 to go over 100 mph a 50-mile range using batteries alone! With battery technology you can get the car to go 180 to 200 miles and the is still less than brand-new SUVs.

In an effort to the market toward the electric some people are trying alternatives, including:

• Driving cell cars

• Converting cars to either grid-connected or hybrids

• Buying hybrid-electric

• Purchasing low-speed electric such as the GEM car

• Driving the last automaker-built electric cars, as the Toyota RAV4 EV or the TH!NK (manufactured with Ford Co.), if they can be found.

or later, we will get to an electric car by the car Whether it happens in my lifetime is not the My point is that you can get an electric today.

You can also take any you want and convert it to an electric We can also encourage the fix-it guy the street to help us with our so that more mechanics the country are building electric

Convert Your Car to Electric!

cars are not difficult to build and are easy to convert. There are so reasons to convince you of the need to go

• The cost of a gallon of gas

• Higher rates

• Our need to reduce our on imported oils

• The prospect of a car that is cost-effective, fun, and than most cars on the today.

Once again: How the fact that you can convert an vehicle today? Right And it would cost you less some new cars on the market. are so many television shows people “tricking out” cars by adding better or doing just about to make it go fast and be safe. car conversions do all that and more.

allow the next generation to a safer world without on foreign sources of oil while our kids really clean and cars to drive.

In very terms, the 2001 Porsche and the Ford Ranger pickup vehicle conversions (discussed in 11 of the book) go 75 mph, get 60 miles (or on a charge, use conventional lead-acid and off-the-shelf components, and can be put together by anyone. Its batteries cost $2,200 and last about years, its conversion parts about $5,500 to $7,000, and it $1.25 to recharge, or “fuel In New York terms, that’s than a token on a subway. the maintenance costs are negligible to the oil changes, radiator repairs, and all the additional maintenance costs of a car by an internal combustion engine.

In chapter you’ll learn an electric vehicle is, and explore the in consciousness responsible for the upsurge in surrounding it. You’ll discover the and untruths behind electric myths. You’ll also about the EV’s advantages, and why its — assisted by technological improvements — continue to increase in the future.

To appreciate an electric car, best to start with a at the internal combustion engine The difference between the two is a study in

Mankind’s continued fascination the internal combustion engine is an enigma. The internal combustion is a device that inherently to destroy itself: Numerous drive its pistons up and down to a shaft. A shaft rotating at revolutions/minute produces 100 explosions second.

These explosions in require a massive vessel to them — typically a cast-iron block. Additional systems are

• A cooling system to keep the within a safe operating

• An exhaust system to remove the exhaust products safely.

• An system to initiate the combustion at the moment.

• A fueling system to the proper mixture of air and gas for combustion.

• A system to reduce wear on rapidly moving parts.

• A system to get the whole cycle

It’s complicated to keep all systems working together. complexity means more can go wrong (more frequent and higher repair costs). Figure 1-3 the internal combustion engine systems.

Unfortunately, the internal engine’s legacy of destruction just stop with The internal combustion engine is a of the generic combustion process. To a match, you use oxygen (O2) the air to burn a carbon-based fuel or cardboard matchstick), generate dioxide (CO2), emit waste gases (you can see the and perhaps smell the sulfur), and a solid waste (burnt The volume of air around you is far greater that consumed by the match.

Air soon dissipate the smoke and and you toss the matchstick.

Today’s combustion engine is more than ever. However, we have a carbon-based combustion that creates heat and Everything about the internal engine is toxic, and is still one of the mechanical devices on the planet.

lighting a single match, the use of of millions (soon to be billions) of combustion engine vehicles to destroy all life on Earth. read about environmental caused by internal combustion vehicles in Chapter 2.

While an combustion engine has hundreds of parts, an electric motor has one. That’s one of the main why electric cars are so efficient. To an electric vehicle out of a car, or van you are driving now, all you need to do is out the internal combustion engine with all related ignition, fueling, and exhaust system and add an electric motor, batteries, and a

Hey, it doesn’t get any simpler this!

Figure 1-5  shows all is to it: Batteries and a charger are your system, an electric motor and are your “electrical” system, and the system was as before (although advanced electric vehicle don’t even need the and drive shaft).

A simple of an electric vehicle looks a simple diagram of a portable shaver: a battery, a motor, and a or switch that adjusts the of electricity to the motor to control its That’s it. Nothing comes out of electric shaver and nothing out of your electric car.

EVs are (therefore highly reliable), lifetimes measured in millions of need no periodic maintenance etc.), and cost significantly per mile to operate than gas They are highly flexible as using electric energy available anywhere as input

In addition to all these benefits, if you build, or convert your vehicle from an internal engine vehicle chassis as in this book, you perform a service for the environment: You remove one car from the road and add one nonpolluting vehicle to service.

You’ve had a tour and side-by-side comparison of vehicles and internal combustion vehicles. Now let’s take a look at electric vehicles.

What Is an Electric Vehicle?

An vehicle consists of a battery provides energy, an electric that drives the wheels, and a that regulates the energy to the motor. Figure 1-5  shows all is to it — but don’t be fooled by its simplicity. engineers, and inventors down the ages have always “In simplicity there is elegance.” find out why the electric vehicle is elegant.

Electric Motors. motors can be found in so many and places, and have so many uses, that we tend to them for granted. Universal in they can be as big as a house or smaller your fingernail, and can be powered by any of electricity.

In fact, they are so quiet, and inexpensive that we to overlook just how pervasive and they are in virtually every person’s life.

Each of us dozens, if not hundreds, of electric daily without even about them: The alarm that wakes you; the you turn on for the news; you remove beans from the refrigerator and put the beans in a grinder; in the bathroom you use an shaver, electric toothbrush, or dryer; breakfast might be by your electric juicer, or food mixer; you might your home with vacuum cleaner or clean clothes with your and dryer; next you’re your automobile, subway, or light rail transit to to work, where you might go an automatic gate or door or an elevator or escalator to your at home or at work you sit down at computer, use the Internet, e-mail, phone, or Blackberry, and use your fax or after you adjust the fan, or air conditioner. Back at home in the you might use an electric garage opener, program your or use an electric power tool on a On and on, you get the picture.

Why are electric motors In one word — convenience. Electric do work so that you don’t to.

Whether it’s pulling, lifting, stirring, or oscillating, the motor converts electrical into motion, which is adapted to do useful work.

is the secret of the electric motor’s use? Reliability. This is of its simplicity. Regardless of type, all motors have only two components: a rotor (the part) and a stator (the part).

That’s right — it has one moving part. If you design, and use an electric motor correctly, it is impervious to failure and indestructible in

In internal combustion automobiles, in to your all-important electric motor, you typically find motors in the passenger compartment system, radiator fan, wipers, electric seats, door locks, trunk outside rear view outside radio antenna, and

Batteries. No matter where you go, you get away from batteries They’re in your pocket recorder, portable radio, cell phone, laptop portable power tool, game, flashlight, camera, and more devices. Batteries in two distinct flavors: rechargeable and Like motors, they in all sorts of sizes, shapes, and capacities.

Unlike motors, have no moving parts. The batteries you simply dispose of they are out of juice; rechargeable you connect to a recharger or source of power to build them up to There are different types of

There are rechargeable lead-acid, metal hydride, and lithium-ion (as some examples), which can be in your car to manage the recharging invisibly via an under-the-hood generator or that recharges the battery you’re driving.

Why are batteries In a word — convenience. The battery, in with the starter motor, the all-important function of starting the powered by the conventional internal engine.

In fact, it was the battery and starter motor combination, introduced in the early 1920s and very little since that put the internal combustion car on the map — it made cars easy to and easy to use for anyone, anywhere.

great thing about the of electric cars is lithium-ion technology. It is moving rapidly the marketplace and dropping in price. the next few years we can expect drops in price, making EV more affordable.

Soon the standard will be lithium-ion in any conversion kit.

Rechargeable automotive batteries perform job very reliably over a range of temperature extremes if kept properly charged, maintain their efficiency and stable output characteristics a relatively long period of — several years. A lead-acid battery is unlikely to fail you shock it, drop it, discharge it or allow a cell to go dry. The maintenance required in lead-acid is checking each cell’s level and periodically refilling with water.

Newer, batteries require no maintenance at

Controllers. Controllers have much more intelligent. The technology that reduced from room-sized to desk-sized you to exercise precise control an electric motor.

Regardless of the source, current needs, or type, today’s controllers — with reliable solid-state components — can be designed to meet any need and can easily be made to fit conveniently under the hood of car.

Why are electric vehicles When you join an electric battery, and controller together, you get an vehicle that is both and convenient. Perhaps the best is that when you “go EV” you can drive entire car from an oversized starter motor, a more set of rechargeable batteries, and a very starter switch.

But it’s going to get better.

Back in the 1990s when the first of this book was published, vehicles resembled your electric shaver, portable tool, or kitchen appliance. and tomorrow’s electric vehicles closely resemble your laptop computer in terms of sophistication and capabilities.

Have You an Electric Car Lately?

Besides all the of electric cars and the California Air Board (CARB) mandates to electric cars, hybrids, and cells that are replicated in other states, very few have bought, built, or an electric vehicle because wanted to save planet

Here are some of the reasons why do get into electric vehicles.

Cars Offer the “Total

Word of mouth and personal make a difference. Another way recently) is from the documentary Who Killed The Electric Car? The effect of numerous people EV symposiums, rallies, and Electric Association meetings and movies all the world — and experiencing firsthand it’s like to ride or one — has gradually done the job. universally, people enjoy the vehicle experience, are impressed by it, and a friend.

That’s the real reason for the in interest in electric cars.

Cars Are Fun to Drive

Imagine on a car and hearing nothing! The only way you can that the car is on is by looking at the battery/fuel on the dashboard. This is only the surprise of many when you get an electric vehicle.

When I to work for the New York Power (NYPA) and do ride-and-drives for the public, I used to say that once you get in, you are forever. It’s true. single time a person got out of the there would be a smile on face, a sense of real and then the inevitable first (“Where can I get one?!”) would pop up.

Electric vehicles are first and practical — but also fun to own and drive. say they become downright Tooling around in breezy vehicle silence gives you all the without the noise. As I liked to put it to my “You can really hear stereo.”

Electric Vehicles a Difference by Standing Out

Electric are a great way to drive and make a contribution to the country. By driving an gasoline-free car, you reduce our reliance on imported oil; will make you friends.

you’ve owned or even an EV1 from GM (what a ride!), RAV4, TH!NK City, Force, or a converted Porsche 914 or Ranger pickup truck, or a chassis with custom body, your electric is a sexy, quiet, technologically show-stopper.

Believe me, if the words car” or “electric vehicle” prominently on the outside of your pickup, or van, you will not for instant friends at any stoplight, center, gas station, or just stop and go on the highway. One time I was a Toyota RAV4 EV on the West Highway in Manhattan with the down. All different types of were intrigued. (“Is an electric car?

When can I get How far does it go? Is it as good as people Or the best was, “That is one ride!”) Or you can park it in a conspicuous lift the hood, and wait for the passerby to ask questions, as Figure 1-6

There’s a level of respect you a pride in riding in the car, and a of leading the pack in those at shows and demonstrations. One suggestion have plenty of literature available on hand so you can keep electric vehicle discussions to five minutes in length. On the hand, if you just want to people, make the letters on sign real big and you will want for company.

The first of anything new always have an of prestige and mystique about You will be instantly coronated in own neighborhood. You are driving what have only talked While hopefully everyone own one in the future, you are driving an electric today. When TV sets introduced in the 1950s, the whole crowded into the first with the first tiny and white screens.

Expect the with your electric project. This will you can reduce your carbon with an electric car and it won’t hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Cars Save You Money

All emotional stuff is nice, but talk out-of-pocket dollars. Ask any vehicle conversion owner, and tell you it transports them they want to go, is very and saves them money. examine separately the operating, and lifetime ownership costs and the potential savings.

Operating Electric vehicles only electricity. In between charge-ups, are no other consumables to worry except an occasional watering of the

These figures are covered in detail later, but the Ford electric vehicle pickup discussed in Chapter 10 averages 0.44 kWh (kilowatt-hours, a measure of consumption) per mile. At $0.165 per kWh for in New York (check your utility monthly statement for the rate in your area) translates to

0.44 kWh/mile 3 = 0.0726 (7.3 cents) per

(Note: Does not include cost and 3.3 cents per mile for replacement.)

Let’s compare costs with the EV’s internal combustion engine in a pickup chassis. The latter gasoline; its ignition, cooling, and exhaust systems require fluids, and periodic maintenance. The pickup chassis (equivalent to the example) averages 20 miles per or 0.05 gallons per mile. At per gallon for gas, that to

0.05 gallons/mile x $4.50/gallon = (22.5 cents) per mile

and periodic maintenance must be added. Assuming these $41.67 per month (oil averaged over three fuel additives, aligning and tires), and annual mileage is miles per year, this to

$500/year ÷ 12,000 miles/year = (4.2 cents) per mile

the two figures together, you’re at 27 cents per mile operating for a gasoline-powered vehicle versus 7.3 per mile for its electric vehicle — almost three times the of the electric vehicle. While average EV conversion — made off-the-shelf components — might about 0.4 kWh per mile, General EV1 was rated at 0.1 kWh per mile (0.07 This drops your vehicle operating costs to 0.5 per mile! (Note: cost per varies with driver.)

Costs. Commercially manufactured vehicles are prohibitively expensive — if you can find one at all. Tomorrow’s vehicle costs will drop to become equal to or than internal combustion–powered as more units are made manufacturing economies-of-scale come play) because they far fewer (and much parts.

But this book the conversion alternative — you convert an internal combustion engine to an electric vehicle. You remove the combustion engine and all systems go with it, and add an electric motor, and batteries. If you start with a internal combustion engine chassis you can save even (with the advantage of having the components already broken in, as chapters point out). if you buy a Porsche or other high-end if you were planning to buy a Porsche in the place, you would already be to spend more money the average consumer.)

To this must be added the of your internal combustion vehicle chassis. If you start the chassis of a brand new vehicle, could mean $10,000 or (less any credit for removed combustion engine components). A used chassis might you just $2,000 to $3,000 (or if you take advantage of special as mentioned in Chapter 5). So your purchase costs are in the $8,000 to ballpark. This is substantially than already converted vehicles!

Obviously, you can do better if you buy and scrounge for parts. Equally you can also spend more if you to have someone else do the labor, decide you must a brand new Ferrari Testarossa or elect to build a Kevlar-bodied with titanium frame scratch.

This book building it yourself. As a second choice, logic (and law — the demand upon a resource to expand to match the supply of the dictates that the money for this decision will to fill the budget available — of whether an internal combustion vehicle or EV is chosen. So second purchase costs for an internal or electric vehicle are a wash — are identical.

Electric Cars Are

EVs are modularly upgradable. See a better and controller? Bolt them on. some more efficient Strap them in.

You don’t to get an entirely new vehicle; you can adapt new incrementally as it becomes available.

cars are easily modified to special needs. Even EVs are manufactured in volume, the exact needed by everyone will not be because it would be prohibitively to do so. But specialist shops that add for those living in the north, air for those living in the south, and for those living in the heartland spring up.

Chapter 4 will you to the conversion specialists that today.

Electric Car Safety

vehicles are safer for you and everyone you. EVs are a boon for safety-minded Electric vehicles are called (zero emission vehicles) they emit nothing, they are moving or stopped.

In when stopped, electric motors are not running and use no energy at

This is in direct contrast to combustion engine–powered vehicles not only consume fuel but do their best polluting stopped and idling in traffic. EVs are the ideal solution for minimizing and energy waste on congested commuting highways all over the but this section is about yourself: as an electric vehicle you are not going to be choking on your own fumes. Electric vehicles are and infinitely adaptable. Want acceleration? Put in a bigger electric

Want greater range? a better power-to-weight design. more speed? Pay attention to design’s aerodynamics, weight, and

When you buy, convert, or an EV today, all these choices and are yours to make because are no standards and few restrictions. The primary regard safety (you to be covered in this area and are taken care of by using an internal combustion engine chassis that has already safety qualified. Other standards to be used when mounting, using, and servicing EV conversion components are discussed in this book.

It gets EVs carry no combustible fuels, spark plug ignition hot exhaust manifolds, catalytic or hot radiators on board. These simply won’t happen:

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

• compartment fires (caused by or hot manifolds—as seen by the side of the

• Hot radiator coolant explosions by improper radiator cap removal; many of us have experienced firsthand), or

• Starting forest (caused by hot catalytic converters over dry grass)

Even you save wear and tear on by not having to do needless chores with vehicle ownership. the numerous periodic internal engine vehicle activities in Figure 1-3  with the far simpler vehicle requirements shown 1-4 .

In the “yuck” but not really dangerous — electric vehicle owners have to mess with oil (no slippery spots on your floor), antifreeze (no lighter, spots on your garage or filters (the kind you in a rag far away from your because they are filthy or

For critics who comment that batteries emit potentially hydrogen gas when charging, and out that electric vehicles multiple batteries: When is the time you heard of a death or resulting from charging a It’s possible but very

How about the acid part in batteries? You’ll learn battery details in Chapter 8, but the is diluted sulfuric acid. It hurts if it spills on you or anything but it doesn’t explode or catch and can readily be counteracted by flushing water.

On another safety while electric vehicles do not noise pollution, there has concern about hybrid being unsafe for seeing-impaired because the engines don’t noise.

However, the Baltimore-based Federation of the Blind presented testimony to Congress asking for a sound standard for hybrids to be in the state’s emissions regulations. As the of the group, Marc Maurer, he’s not interested in returning to vehicles, they just fuel-efficient hybrids to have type of warning noise.

“I want to pick that way of but I don’t want to get run over by a car, either,” Maurer

Manufacturers are aware of the problem but made no pledges yet. is studying the issue internally, Bill Kwong, a spokesman for Motor Sales USA.

of the many benefits of the Prius, excellent fuel economy and low is quiet performance. Not only it not pollute the air, it doesn’t noise pollution,” Kwong “We are studying the issue and trying to that delicate balance.”

The of International Auto Manufacturers a trade group, is also the problem, along with a established by the Society of Automotive The groups are considering “the of setting a minimum noise standard for hybrid vehicles,” Mike Camissa, the safety for the manufacturers’ association.”

Electric Save the Environment

EV ownership is proof of your commitment to clean up the environment. Chapter 2 cover in detail the environmental of this choice. EVs produce no of any kind to harm the air, and everything in them is recyclable. every electric vehicle represents one less polluting combustion vehicle on the road.

Electric vehicles are not only the modern and efficient forms of but they also help our carbon footprint today!

Car Myths (Dispelling the Rumors)

have been four circulated myths/rumors about vehicles that are not true. the reality in each case is the opposite of the myth, you should about them.

Myth #1: Vehicles Can’t Go Fast

Well, this is probably if you are talking about a four-ton van 36 batteries. The reality is that EVs can go as as you want — just choose the vehicle model (or design or one) with the speed you want. One example of how fast can accelerate was when I was driving a City (really small EV) in New York City. I was at a traffic next to a Ford cab (how since Ford owned at the time).

The cabbie wanted to see how it could go so I said, “I know it can you.” (Please note all of this was done well the legal speed limits on the in Manhattan!) He said, “You’re So the light turned green and I hit the The look on the cabbie’s face was a million dollars. He was more surprised at the torque and acceleration. on the street were screaming, go, go.” I blew him away.

We met up at the traffic light and he said, can I get one?” Enough said.

current EVs use nickel metal batteries, such as the Toyota or even today’s hybrid cars such as the Prius or the Civic hybrid. Other companies are starting to use lithium-ion however, most still use acid. The speed of an electric is directly related to its weight, characteristics such as air and rolling electric motor size and battery voltage.

The more the more batteries you have, the any given electric motor be able to push the vehicle — but batteries adds also to the weight. All of these factors you can control how much speed you get out of EV, and you’re certainly not limited in any If speed is important, then the electric vehicle you choose for it.

as simple as that.

Myth #2: Vehicles Have Limited

Nothing could be further the truth but, unfortunately, myth has been widely The reality is that electric can go as far as most people need. this book advocates an vehicle conversion only as second vehicle.

While batteries will expand range dramatically and there are people that are travelling country in EVs, it is not yet the best use for a road trip at this

But what is its range? The federal reports that the average commuter trip distance for all of vehicle travel (auto, bus) is 10 miles, and this hasn’t changed appreciably in 20 of data-gathering. An earlier study that 98 percent of all vehicle are under 50 miles per day; people do all their driving and only take a few long

Trips of 100 miles and longer for only 17 percent of total General Motors’ own surveys in the ‘90s (taken from a of drivers in Boston, Los Angeles, and indicated:

• Most people drive very far.

• than 40 percent of all trips under 5 miles.

• Only 8 of all trips were more 25 miles.

• Nearly 85 percent of the drove less than 75 per day.

Virtually any of today’s electric vehicle conversions go 75 miles — using readily off-the-shelf components — if you keep the under 3,000 pounds. means an EV can meet more 85 percent of the average needs. If commuting to work — a place presumably has an electrical outlet — you can nearly double your by recharging during your hours. Plus, if range is important, optimize your vehicle for it.

It’s that

Myth #3: Electric Vehicles Are Not

The myth that electric are not effective as a real form of or that they are not convenient is a silly myth/rumor. Car companies and have complained that is not enough recharging infrastructure the country or that you cannot the car anywhere you would like as fueling up a car. A popular is, “Suppose you’re driving and you are not your home to charge up or you run out of what do you do?” Well, my answer is, “I would do the same I’d do if I ran out of gas — call AAA or a tow truck.”

The reality is electric vehicles are extremely Recharging is as convenient as your electrical outlet. Here are other reasons:

• You can get electricity you can get gas — there are no gas stations without

• You can get electricity from many places — there are few homes and no businesses in the United States electricity. All these are potential for you to recharge your electric

• Over time, as electric and plug-in hybrid electric become prevalent, fuel will increase their for charging stations and we will all the price of that versus a of gas.

• As far as being stuck in the of nowhere goes, other taking extended trips in U.S. deserts (and these are filling up rapidly), are only a few places you can drive 75 without seeing an electric in the contiguous United States. and Japan have no such

• Plug-in-anywhere recharging capability is an electric vehicle advantage. No it’s an advantage when electric vehicle is parked in home’s garage, carport, or If you live in an apartment and can work out a arrangement, it’s an even idea: a very simple can be rigged to signal you if anyone tries to steal your

• How much more convenient electric vehicles be? There are few places you can drive in the civilized where you can’t recharge in a and your only other is to add water once in a while. exists virtually everywhere; you have to figure out how to tap into it. If electric vehicle has an onboard extension cord, and plug(s) it’s no more difficult going to your neighbor’s to borrow a cup of sugar.

Except, of course, you probably to leave a cash tip in this

While there are no electrical specifically designated for recharging vehicles conveniently located today, and though it’s easier and faster to recharge electric vehicle from a or 220-volt kiosk, the widely 120-volt electric supply the job quite nicely. When infrastructure exists in the future, it be even more convenient to your batteries. In the future, you be able to recharge quicker multiple voltage and current have “quick charge” by dumping one battery stack another, and maybe even uniform battery packs you swap and strap on at a local station” in no more time it takes you to get a fill-up at a gas station

Just as it’s used in home today, electricity is quiet, safe, and stays at the until you need it.

Myth #4: Vehicles Are Expensive

While true of electric vehicles are manufactured in low volume today — and true of professionally done units — it’s not true of the electric vehicle conversions book advocates. The reality, as we saw in this chapter, is that vehicles cost the same to buy not going to spend any more for it you would have budgeted for your second internal engine vehicle), the same to and far less per mile to operate. In the term, future volume and technology improvements will make the cost benefits electric vehicles even

Disadvantages. Well, there had to be a If any one of the factors below is important to you might be better served by an alternate course of action.

Trips. As already mentioned, the vehicle is not your best for transcontinental travel at this or long trips in general. Not you can’t do it. Alternate methods are more convenient.

As mentioned, book advocates the use of the convert-it-yourself vehicle as a second vehicle. you need to take longer use your first vehicle, an airplane, train, or bus, or a vehicle.

Time to Purchase/Build. of your decision to buy, or convert an electric vehicle, it is to take you time to do it, but certainly than it used to. There is a network of new and used electric dealers and conversion shops.

the supply for the highest grade and motors do take time to and will slow down conversion process. Although, as for these products increases, the will increase too and the time it takes for these products to be will get reduced. (Check the section at the end of the book.) But plan on a few weeks to a few months to arrive at the vehicle of your choice.

vehicle resale (if you should to sell your EV) will longer — for the same reason. a reasonably ready market via the Electric Auto Association and national newsletters, it is still to take you longer and be less than going down to a automobile dealer.

Repairs. electric vehicle repair don’t exist yet either. the build-it-yourself experience will your rapid diagnosis of any replacement parts could be weeks, or months away — via expedited carriers.

You could stockpile spare parts but the time to carefully think this or any other repair is before you make your vehicle decision.

The Force Is You

What you are seeing today in vehicles is just the tip of the iceberg. It is that future improvements make them faster, and even more efficient. are five prevailing reasons guarantee electric vehicles always be with us in the future. The one not previously discussed is technological All the available technology has just been squeezed out of internal engine vehicles, and they are to be even more environmentally in the future.

This will hit buyer right in the pocketbook. gains will not come Internal combustion engines are at the end of their technological lifetime. all improvements in meeting today’s Corporate Average Fuel (CAFE) requirements have achieved via improving electronics

CAFE is the sales weighted fuel economy, expressed in per gallon (mpg), of a manufacturer’s of passenger cars or light with a gross vehicle rating (GVWR) of 8,500 or less, manufactured for sale in the States, for any given model Fuel economy is defined as the mileage traveled by an automobile per of gasoline (or equivalent amount of fuel) consumed as measured in with the testing and evaluation set forth by the Environmental Protection (EPA) (Source: National Traffic Safety Administration).

By CAFE mandates all new cars will have the fuel of 35 miles per gallon as approved by the State Congress. Since the efficiency of an electric vehicle is than that, an EV will be the best approach.

In addition, lithium battery technology the standard, electric vehicles be able to go 300 to 600 miles (depending on the Unquestionably, the future looks for electric vehicles because the is yet to come.

The four remaining were covered in this and are summarized in Figure 1-7 :

• Fun to drive and own

• efficient

• Performance efficient

• efficient

Any one of the four reasons is compelling by itself; the benefits of all reasons taken together are

Build Your Own Electric  is available through MOTHER NEWS shopping.

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars


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