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Electric Vehicle Battery University

6 Апр 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Electric Vehicle Battery University отключены
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

Electric Vehicle

Cars electric powertrains have around for more than 100 At the turn of the century, a car buyer had choices of propulsion system: steam, and internal combustion engine, of which the IC engine was the common.

The electric cars to the upper class and the vehicles finished with fancy and expensive materials. Although were higher in price the steam and gasoline-powered vehicles, the chose the electric car for its quiet and ride over the vibration, and high maintenance of gasoline-powered Best of all, the electric (EV) did not require changing

Back then, the knuckle wrist-wrenching chore of shifting was the most dreaded task for a gasoline-powered car. Nor did the EV need cranking to start the motor, a the upper class did not want to be doing. Since the only roads were in town, the range of the EV was no problem, and most of the was local commuting.

Production of the EV in 1912 and continued until the

The battery of choice for the EV was lead For an added fee, the buyer fit the Detroit Electric with a (NiFe) battery, a technology Edison promoted. NiFe had a voltage of 1.2V, was robust and endure overcharging and repeated discharging. Being a good Edison continued to promote over lead acid by its good performance at subfreezing and hot Then in 1914, a devastating destroyed the Edison factory and the for this battery began to

On a purely technological level, provided only a slightly specific energy to lead and was expensive to manufacture. In addition, the performed poorly at low temperatures and the was 2040 percent a month, higher than lead

The Detroit Electric, one of the most EVs then, was said to get 130km (80 between battery charges. Its top was 32km/h (20mph), a pace adequate for driving. Physicians and were the main buyers.

Edison, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Ford, the wife of Henry drove Detroit Electrics. 1 shows Thomas Edison his 1914 Detroit Electric

Figure 1:

Thomas Edison a 1914 Detroit Electric, 47

Thomas Edison felt nickel-iron was superior to lead for the EV and promoted his more expensive

Courtesy of National Museum of History

Henry Ford’s and cost-cutting measures in 1912 not the only reason for the shift gasoline-powered cars. The invention of the motor, the need to travel distances, and the discovery of Texas oil made the IC engine more and affordable to the general public.

The EV a thing of the past until the 1990s when the California Air Board (CARB) began for more fuel-efficient and lower-emission It was the CARB zero-emission policy prompted General Motors to the EV1. Available for lease 19961999, the EV1 initially ran on an 18kWh acid battery.

The lead acid was later with a 26kWh NiMH Although the NiMH gave an driving range of 260km miles), the EV1 was not without problems. costs rose to three the cost of a regular gasoline-powered and in 2001 politicians changed the requirements, which prompted Motors to withdraw the EV1, to the of many owners.

The 2006 film Who Killed the Electric gives a mixed impression of programs for cleaner transportation.

To the range of an IC-powered vehicle, the EV a battery capable of delivering This is twice the battery of a PHEV and 10 times that of the The electro-chemical battery is not the only added to the EV; the power electronics to the battery make up a large of the vehicle cost.

An EV without a is roughly the same cost as a gasoline-powered car. Figure 2 the battery of the Nissan Leaf as of the under-chassis installation.

Figure 2: battery of Nissan Leaf vehicle. The Leaf includes a lithium-ion battery with a driving range of 160km miles). The battery fits the floor of the car, weighs (600lb) and is estimated to cost (2010).

Courtesy of Nissan

A valid concern with the EV is the driving range, especially in and hot weather. Designed to go 160km miles) on a charge, a BMW Mini E about half that in cold weather before out of power. Additional energy is to heat the cabin and battery drops in cold temperatures. thermal technologies are making achieving a comfortable cabin remains an issue with EV designs.

To conserve energy, EV drivers use the and air-conditioning sparingly and drive in a manner.

The Mini E takes 68 to fully charge the battery on a 115VAC outlet. High-power (220240VAC) can reduce the charge to 35 hours, and high-power public stations can charge a battery in two In most cases it’s the electrical outlet and not the battery governs charge times. a 40kWh battery in six minutes, as battery manufacturers might possible, would require of power.

An ordinary 115VAC outlet provides only and a 230VAC, 40A kitchen stove delivers 9kW. (The kitchen stove is often the appliance that draws the power. It feeds off a 230VAC, circuit.)

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

Car manufacturer Tesla focuses on building EVs that zero emissions with high performance. Its electric boasts a zero-to-96km (zero-to-60 mp) of 3.9 seconds. The 7,000 Li-ion store 53kWh of electrical and deliver a driving range of (200 miles). Liquid prevents the cells from 35C (95F).

To achieve the five-year Tesla charges the Li-cobalt to only 4.10V instead of The electronics circuits inhibit at freezing temperatures. At $130,000, car turns heads and becomes a item, however, the $40,000 of a replacement battery could concern for long-term Tesla

A battery for the electric powertrain costs between $1,000 and per kWh. According to The Boston Group (BCG), relief is in BCG claims that the price of will fall to $750 per kWh the next decade. Meanwhile, for consumer electronics are only per kWh.

High volume, manufacturing, lower safety and shorter calendar life this low price possible. BCG that Li-ion batteries for the will eventually match consumer prices, and the cost of a battery will drop to $6,000 from $16,000.

The decrease in battery prices is to occur between now and 2020, a more gradual decline According to BCG, the anticipated life of the battery will be years. E-One Moli a manufacturer of lithium-ion cells for tools and electric vehicles, out that the cost of Li-ion can be to $400 per kWh in high volume, the peripheral electronics managing the including heating and cooling, remain high, essentially the price of a pack. Reductions are possible here, and E-One Energy predicts that the will only make up 20 of the cost of an EV battery in five These forecasts are speculative, and analysts express concern the carmakers may not be able to achieve the cost target without a breakthrough in battery technology.

They say that the current cost is 3 to 5 times too high to to the consumer market.

On the surface, on electricity is cheaper than gasoline but today’s low fuel uncertainty about the battery’s life, along with abuse tolerances and high costs, will reduce the for buyers to switch from a concept to an electric vehicle. If a wants the 500km range fill-ups that is achievable a gasoline-powered car,the battery need a capacity of 75kWh to Technology Roadmaps Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles At an estimated $400 price tag per such a battery would over $30,000 and weigh a ton.

Technology Roadmap the energy consumption and cost of versus electric propulsion as An EV requires between 150 and 200Wh per km on speed and terrain. At a consumption of and an electricity price of $0.15 per the energy cost to drive an EV to $0.03 per km. This compares to per km for an equal-size gasoline-powered car and $0.05 per km for

The price estimations exclude costs, service and eventual of the battery and IC engine.

To prepare for the EV researchers and battery manufacturers invested significant resources to better battery technologies, and are taking advantage of generous incentives. But there is a danger. For the of optimal specific energy, start-up companies are experimenting aggressive design concepts volatile chemicals that safety.

They may push the envelope by impressive advances, emphasizing the pros and squelching the cons. behavior will get media and entice venture capitalists to however, hype contributes in finding a solution that improve existing battery

The battery will determine the of the EV, and until improvements are achieved in of higher specific energy, service life and lower the electric powertrain may be limited to a market. While governments large sums in the hope of current battery technologies, we realize that the electrochemical has limitations. This was made when motorists tested current and future models electric powertrains and attained ranges that were less than estimated.

3 lists a rundown of range and times. The electric cars tested in real-life conditions on over mountain passes and winter conditions in 2010.


BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

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