[ Electric Vehicle Project Lead Acid Batteries chosing for your EV ]

19 мая 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи [ Electric Vehicle Project Lead Acid Batteries chosing for your EV ] отключены
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

Lead Acid Batteries:

A of notes from Kitty presentation to the Peninsula Chapter of the Auto Association, by David

Care and Feeding of Lead Batteries

A consolidation of notes Kitty Rodden’s presentation to the Chapter of the Electric Auto

Now that you have chosen a for your EV, how do you get the most mileage out of investment? That is the question I to answer in this article, you have 6 volt or 12 volt the answer is the same.

The first to do is to make sure you do not order batteries too soon and then them sitting around the while you are finishing up your EV. If you store your batteries for a time make sure they are fully charged and are and covered to reduce the poss- of accidental short from a tool or other conductor. batteries are always on.

Lead battery background information:

The chemical equation for the lead battery is shown below. It is to look at this and understand is happening to a battery under and charge. Under discharge; an external circuit is made; flow and the positive and negative react with the electrolyte to lead sulfate and water equation from left to

On charge; an external current drives electrons through the causing the lead sulfate to to lead oxide on the positive and the lead sulfate on the negative to change to lead; while the is changed back to sulfuric (read equation right to

In the care and feeding of your how do you know what state batteries are in? There are two ways to this. One way is to measure to Open Voltage (OCV or Voc) or the gravity of the electrolyte of the battery there is no load on the battery and it has with out a load for at least 6 (24 hours officially).

The table shows state of charge, Voc and gravity for a given battery.

The table is useful in determining the of charge of your EV when it is at and has not been used for some Since Voc measurements are not possible on a cell, specific gravity can be taken to determine if there is a bad in a battery.

The second way to determine the of charge is to measure the voltage of the or battery pack when it is a load. This method has the that it can be done while the EV is in thereby giving the driver information on the remaining range of the EV. The and table below show the of charge or discharge as a function of voltage.

To determine the state of while driving, simply the accelerator so that the current reads 75 amps (from the not the motor) and then observe the pack voltage. A table can be up for your battery pack the state of charge at various voltages based on the table After a while you will get the of your car and will be able to the amount of juice you have in your battery pack.

If you suspect you have a weak you can observe the voltage of just battery with a separate and see if it’s state of charge is the rest of the pack.


We must first know type of lead acid you have before we can talk proper care and feeding. are many types of LA batteries, but as far as goes we will group as follows:

In General, the flooded lead antimony batteries greater cycle life and can be to 80% of full charge. The maintenance lead calcium batteries less cycle life and can be to 50% of full charge. The lead batteries use less water and do not gas as

That is why they are used in free and valve Regulated batteries.

I will talk flooded cell batteries since these are the most used (6 volt and 12 volt) for the EV hobbyist.


Lead (LA) batteries like to be in a charged state. Unlike LA batteries do not have any memory and ever you can charge them up, LA will be happier for it. As you can see from the above, lead sulfate is a product of discharging. The problem lead sulfate is that it start to form crystals if the is left in a discharged state. charging these crystals are down, if they are not too big, and the is charged up.

Over a period of time crystals will effectively lead sulfate from the and/ or grow large to short out the plates. So always your EV charged up when not in

A typical charging profile start with a high (10 to 20 constant current, variable for the first part of the charging until 80% charged and then to a low current variable voltage next part and finishes a constant voltage for the last of the cycle. The graph below the voltage and current for a battery charged as a function of time.

are a few points to understand about At the beginning of the charging cycle the will readily accept a lot of with out gassing. In fact, LA can take on 80% of there charge in six if one has the proper charging equipment. the end of the cycle, the charging is much efficient and any excess energy is into heat and causes

Normally excessive gassing be avoided, as this is a waste of and will use up water, requiring frequent watering and cleaning of the of the batteries. However, an equalizing should be done about 10 cycles. This equalizing is to 100% of charge (2.58 per cell) and should be maintained for two hours.

This equalizing will bring up any weak and help mix the electrolyte on all the batteries.

and Charging

The above numbers are for charging at 77 F. The end charging voltage changes temperature. At lower temperatures the end voltage must increase to the same level of charge at temps. The equation is given

voltage per cell = 2.58 ((T + t)/T) * XXX

The table below some common values for equation.

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

A common mistake is to the end voltage the some for winter as is used for summer charging. As can be by the table, this will not your batteries completely and reduce your range. are two solution to this: ether your end charging voltage or how heat your battery Parking your EV in a heated is a nice way to go.

Battery heaters, run off of the AC line are another solution.

You should always be aware of any in the range of your EV. This can several possible problems. If you your range is declining, the thing to check is the battery

Check for any lose or corroded If you have just driven the check for any warm connections. Use one hand to reduce the possibility of shocked, with the other behind your back. or hot connections indicate high and should be cleaned, tightened or depending on the condition.

Bad connections can a terminal melt down if not When you are checking the connections, check for moisture around the caps. Leaked electrolyte can shorts to the car body, increasing the of shocks and can cause the GFI circuit the charger is hooked up to, to trip the batteries are completely charged. check the water level in the and make sure it is at the full Always fill the batteries they are fully charged as is the highest level for the electrolyte.

All of the above checks should be once a month as a matter of Also check to see that the charging voltage is correct for battery pack and that the breaker to the charger is not tripped.

If you that you have a bad or weak check the voltage of each just after a drive is near the limit of your If you have heater that off of the main battery pack, this on. The extra load help to show up a weak (1.75 volts per cell or

The weak battery will be warmer then the other Charge this battery with a battery charger and let it gas for a This should bring it up to par, if it is not damaged.

If the offending continues to be a problem, remove the from the pack by jumpering the cables around it. Be sure to it before jumpering it. A bad battery put a load on your system and your range substantially.


Sealed batteries are a way to go with an EV if the range and cycle is acceptable to you. With batteries the maintenance is much and there is no cleaning of the battery There is one main difference charging these batteries must not be overlooked.

Sealed and valve regulated have a valve to release if gassing occurs. Care be taken not to over charge a battery. Since the battery is that is you can not add water; any charging produces gassing will water and shorten the battery For this reason, you should not do any charging and should closely set the or float voltage on your

Check with the manufacture for the charging algorithm. To equalize a set of batteries, it may be necessary to charge battery individually in the pack ever you notice that the is out of balance. You can check for pack by measuring the voltage of each at the end of the charge cycle and make the variance is not too great, +/- 0.25

Check batteries about a month.

The information shown is by way of Kitty Rodden formally of Battery Company. I do not have any with Trojan Battery Co. is just the information I have at

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

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