History The invention of the electric motor 18001854

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The invention of the electric motor

A short history of electric — Part 1

Univ.-Prof. Martin Doppelbauer


the invention of the battery (Allessandro 1800), the generation of a magnetic from electric current Christian Oersted, 1820) and the (William Sturgeon, 1825) the for building electric motors was At that time it was still whether electric motors be rotating or reciprocating machines, simulate a plunger rod of a steam

Worldwide, many inventors in parallel on this task it was a fashion problem. New phenomena discovered almost daily. in the field of electrical science and its were in the air.

Often the inventors knew about each other and similar solutions independently. histories are shaped accordingly present day. The following is an to provide a comprehensive and neutral

The first rotating device by electromagnetism was built by the Englishman Barlow in 1822 (Barlow’s

After many other or less successful attempts relatively weak rotating and apparatus the German-speaking Prussian Jacobi created the first rotating electric motor in May that actually developed a mechanical output power. His set a world record which was only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi His second motor was powerful to drive a boat with 14 across a wide river.

It was not until 1839/40 that developers worldwide managed to motors of similar and later of higher performance.

Already in the German Heinrich Friedrich Lenz published an article the law of reciprocity of the magneto-electric and electromagnetic i.e. the reversibility of electric and motor . In 1838 he provided a description of his experiments with a that he operated as a motor.

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In 1835 the two Dutchmen Sibrandus and Christopher Becker built an motor that powered a model car. This is the known practical application of an motor. In February 1837 the patent for an electric motor was to the US-american Thomas Davenport.

all the early developments by Jacobi, Davenport and others eventually did not to the electric motors we know

The DC motor was not created from engines, but rather from the of power generators (dynamometers). The were laid by William and Hippolyte Pixii in 1832 the invention of the commutator and, importantly, by Werner Siemens in with the Double-T-anchor and by his chief Friedrich Hefner-Alteneck, in 1872 the drum armature. DC motors have a dominant market today in the low power (below 1 kW) and low (below 60 V) range.

The years 1885 until saw the invention of the three-phase electric system which is the basis for electrical power transmission and electric motors. A single for the three-phase power system can not be There are several more or well known names who all deeply involved in the inventions Dolivo-Dobrowolsky, Ferraris, Haselwander, and Wenström).

Today, the three-phase  synchronous is used mostly in highly applications (for example in and in electric cars. It was developed by Friedrich August Haselwander in

The highly successful three-phase induction motor  was first by Michael Dolivo-Dobrowolsky in Today, this is the most produced machine in the power of 1 kW and above.

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