How do xenon electric flash lamps work?

16 Июн 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи How do xenon electric flash lamps work? отключены
Noble Electric Cars

Xenon lamps and arc lamps

by Woodford. Last updated: 16, 2013.

Y ou may have only a of a second to catch a vital but what if it’s too dark to Flash lamps, filled a gas called xenon . are the answer. the button on your camera, a few moments for the flash to charge, hit the button to take your andCRACK!you suddenly have all the you need. What exactly are lamps and how do they work? examples of what we call arc and they work in a very way to ordinary lamps.

Let’s a closer look!

Photo: lamp: It takes an extremely light to throw a beam out to sea, even with the of a powerful Fresnel lens concentric circles you can see in the background). why many lighthouses are powered by xenon lamps. Photo by Nichols courtesy of US Navy .

How do lamps work?

All lamps light, but they don’t all the same way. Incandescent (our traditional household make light by passing through a thin metal (wire), so it gets really hot and brightly. Fluorescent lamps are different: they zap electricity a gas to make invisible ultraviolet which gets converted light we can see (visible light) it passes through the white coating of the lamp’s glass making it glow brightly (or ).

Like neon lamps. lamps are examples of arc lamps . An arc is a bit like a small bolt of happening under very conditions inside a glass filled with a gas under very low or very high (depending on the type of lamp). At the two of the tube there are metal called electrodes, connected to a power supply.

Where the light come from? the power supply is turned on, the gas suddenly find themselves incredible, electrical force and into smaller parts. is called ionization (or ionizing the The broken bits of atoms charged ions and negatively electrons) then hurtle in directions along the tube, electrons rushing to the positive and ions going the other forming an electric current. The and electrodes crash into one and into the electrodes, giving off as a flash of light called an arc effectively leaps the gap between the like a lightning bolt.

light is produced by the electrodes which become incredibly hot and brightly in the process. Temperatures of 3000C or 5400F are typical, is why the electrodes are generally made of the metal with the highest point (approximately 3400C or The color of the light depends on the structure of the gas that’s used (we this in more detail in our on neon lamps ). In a neon the light produced is red; in a lamp, it’s a blueish, whiteish light not that from natural daylight.

Photo: Electric arcs so much heat and such temperatures that they can be used to weld metals This is known as arc welding. taken at Idaho National Idaho Falls, courtesy of US of Energy (DOE Photo).

How arc work

Strictly speaking, we use the arc lamp to mean one, type of arc lamp with electrodes and air in between them. Edison, Swan, and their perfected the incandescent lamp. arc like this were the only type of electric available. They were in 1807 (about 70 years Edison perfected his lamp) by chemist Sir Humphry Davy

Davy found he could electric light by connecting two electrodes (a bit like pencils) to a power supply. Initially, he the electrodes touching one another. as he moved them apart, he an arch-shaped beam of light the gap between themwhich is how arc lamps got name. Arc lamps weren’t practical: they needed electric current to make work and the high temperature of the arc burned the carbon electrodes in the air.

Huge electric current is no Davy had to use a battery with separate cells to make a (4-inch) arc.

Modern lamps developed when arc were improved in two ways. The air gap was by a filament, so lower voltages and could be used. The whole was also sealed inside a bulb filled with a gas to prevent the filament from up in the air’s oxygen.

That the lamp last very longer.

Photo: The basic of the arc lamp. An electric discharge between two carbon electrodes, off light.

What are the different of xenon lamps?

In xenon flash lamps, the light is a flash: it lasts anything a microsecond (one millionth of a to about a twentieth of a second. no real need for it to last any since it only takes long to capture a photo. kinds of xenon lamps more like neon and produce smaller amounts of continually.

Instead of passing a huge of electricity through the gas very to produce a sudden arc of light, use smaller, steadier voltages to a constant discharge of bright Movie-projector lamps, lighthouse and HID (high-intensity discharge) car headlamps are all of xenon lamps that in this way.

Photo: a very small xenon lamp from inside a camera. The black and red wires the two electrodes at opposite ends of the to a capacitor (the black just visible on the top left). The job is to build up a high-voltage charge big enough to make a discharge in the tube using only the puny, low-voltage batteries.

takes timewhich is why you often to wait a few seconds to take a photo. The camera lens is the circle underneath the flash. lamps that work way were invented in 1931 by electrical engineer and photographer E. Edgerton (19031990).

What is anyway?

You’ve heard of Xenon is similar. Helium, argon, krypton, xenon, and are the chemical elements from the of the periodic table that we the noble gases (once the inert gases because don’t really react well with other

If you think back to your chemistry, the noble gases are the down the column on the extreme

What’s xenon like? It has no taste, or smell, but it is present in the air us in minutely small quantitiesroughly one of xenon for every 20 million of other gases. Xenon have an atomic number of 54 heavier than oxygen or atoms), so xenon gas is about times heavier than if you’re hunting for xenon, near the ground!

Xenon is a gas on because it melts at roughly (−168F) and boils at −107C

Artwork: The periodic table of elements showing the position of Notice how it’s over on the with the noble gases and the bottom of group 18. That you that xenon atoms are heavy, which is why xenon gas is than air.

Artwork of NASA (with modifications).

Who xenon?


Most of the noble gases, xenon, were discovered by chemist Sir William Ramsay who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work. According to the Royal Academy of Sciences, which the prize: The discovery of an entirely new of elements, of which no single had been known with any is something utterly unique in the of chemistry, being intrinsically an in science of peculiar significance. The remarkable is this advance we recollect that all these are components of the atmosphere of the earth, and though apparently so accessible for research, they have for so a time baffled the acumen of scientists.

Quoted from Speech by Professor J.E. President of the Royal Swedish of Sciences, on December 10, 1904.

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