Tesla’s Biography

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Nikola Tesla symbolizes a force and inspiration for all nations in the of peace and science. He was a true far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of development. New York State and other states in the USA proclaimed 10, Tesla’s birthday- Nikola Day.

Many United Congressmen gave speeches in the of Representatives on July 10, 1990 the 134th anniversary of scientist-inventor Tesla. Senator Levine Michigan spoke in the US Senate on the occasion.

The street sign Tesla Corner” was recently on the corner of the 40th Street and 6th in Manhattan. There is a large of Tesla in the Statue of Liberty The Liberty Science Center in City, New Jersey has a daily demonstration of the Tesla Coil a million volts of electricity the spectators eyes.

Many were written about Prodigal Genius: The Life of Tesla by John J. O’Neill and Cheney’s book Tesla: Man out of has contributed significantly to his fame. A film Nikola Tesla, The Who Lit the World . produced by the Tesla Society and the Nikola Tesla in Belgrade, The Secret of Nikola (Orson Welles), BBC Film of the Ionosphere are other tributes to the genius.

Nikola Tesla was on July 10, 1856 in Smiljan, , which was then part of the Empire, region of Croatia . His Milutin Tesla was a Serbian Priest and his mother Djuka was an inventor in her own right of household Tesla studied at the Realschule, in 1873, the Polytechnic Institute in Austria and the University of Prague. At he intended to specialize in physics and but soon he became fascinated electricity. He began his career as an engineer with a telephone in Budapest in 1881.

It was there, as was walking with a friend the city park that the solution to the rotating magnetic flashed through his mind. a stick, he drew a diagram in the explaining to his friend the principle of the motor. Before going to Tesla joined Continental Company in Paris where he dynamos.

While in Strassbourg in he privately built a prototype of the motor and ran it successfully. Unable to anyone in Europe in promoting radical device, Tesla an offer to work for Thomas in New York. His childhood dream was to to America to harness the power of Falls.

Young Nikola Tesla to the United States in 1884 an introduction letter from Batchelor to Thomas Edison: “I two great men,” wrote “one is you and the other is this man.” Tesla spent the 59 years of his productive life in New York. Tesla set about Edison’s line of dynamos working in Edison’s lab in New Jersey. It was that his divergence of opinion Edison over direct versus alternating current

This disagreement climaxed in the war of the as Edison fought a losing to protect his investment in direct equipment and facilities.

Tesla out the inefficiency of Edison’s direct electrical powerhouses that been build up and down the seaboard. The secret, he felt, lay in the use of current ,because to him all energies cyclic. Why not build generators would send electrical along distribution lines one way, than another, in waves using the polyphase

Edison’s lamps were and inefficient when supplied by current. This system had a disadvantage in that it could not be more than two miles due to its to step up to high voltage necessary for long distance Consequently, a direct current station was required at two mile

Direct current flows in one direction; alternating current direction 50 or 60 times per second and can be up to vary high voltage minimizing power loss great distances. The future to alternating current.

Nikola developed polyphase alternating system of generators, motors and and held 40 basic U.S. on the system, which George bought, determined to supply with the Tesla system. did not want to lose his DC empire, and a war ensued. This was the war of the currents AC and DC. Tesla -Westinghouse ultimately the victor because AC was a superior

It was a war won for the progress of both America and the

Tesla introduced his motors and systems in a classic paper, “A New of Alternating Current Motors and which he delivered before the Institute of Electrical Engineers in One of the most impressed was the industrialist and George Westinghouse. One day he visited laboratory and was amazed at what he Tesla had constructed a model system consisting of an alternating dynamo, step-up and step-down and A.C. motor at the other

The perfect partnership between and Westinghouse for the nationwide use of electricity in had begun.

In February 1882, Tesla the rotating magnetic field, a principle in physics and the basis of all devices that use alternating Tesla brilliantly adapted the of rotating magnetic field for the of alternating current induction and the polyphase system for the generation, distribution and use of electrical power.

A.C. induction motor is used throughout the world in

and household appliances. It started the revolution at the turn of the

century. today is generated transmitted and to mechanical

power by means of his Tesla’s greatest achievement is his

alternating current system, is today lighting the entire

Tesla astonished the world by the wonders of alternating current at the World Columbian Exposition in in 1893. Alternating current standard power in the 20th This accomplishment changed the He designed the first hydroelectric in Niagara Falls in 1895, was the final victory of alternating The achievement was covered widely in the press, and Tesla was praised as a world wide.

King of Montenegro conferred upon him the of Danilo.

Tesla was a pioneer in fields. The Tesla coil, he invented in 1891, is widely today in radio and television and other electronic equipment. year also marked the of Tesla’s United States

His alternating current induction is considered one of the ten greatest discoveries of all Among his discoveries are the fluorescent laser beam, wireless wireless transmission of electrical remote control, robotics, turbines and vertical take off Tesla is the father of the radio and the electrical transmissions systems. He over 700 patents worldwide. His included exploration of solar and the power of the sea.

He foresaw communications and satellites.

The Century published Tesla’s principles of without wires, popularizing lectures given before Institute in February 1893.

The Review in 1896 published of a man, made by Tesla, X-ray tubes of his own design. appeared at the same time as Roentgen announced his discovery of Tesla never attempted to priority. Roentgen congratulated on his sophisticated X-ray pictures, and even wrote Roentgen’s on one of his films. He experimented with similar to those that were to be used by Wilhelm when he discovered X-rays in

Tesla’s countless experiments work on a carbon button on the power of electrical resonance, and on types of lightning. Tesla the special vacuum tube emitted light to be used in

The breadth of his inventions is demonstrated by his for a bladeless steam turbine on a spiral flow principle. also patented a pump to operate at extremely high

Nikola Tesla patented the system of radio in 1896. His schematic diagrams describing all the elements of the radio transmitter was later used by Marconi.

In Tesla constructed an instrument to radio waves. He experimented this device and transmitted waves from his laboratory on 5 th Avenue. to the Gerlach Hotel at 27 th in Manhattan. The device had a magnet gave off intense magnetic up to 20,000 lines per centimeter.

The device clearly establishes his in the discovery of radio.

The shipboard transmitter produced by the Lowenstein Company and licensed under Tesla Company patents, was on the U.S. Naval vessels to World War I.

In December 1901, established wireless communication Britain and the Newfoundland, Canada, him the Nobel prize in 1909. But of Marconi’s work was not original. In James Maxwell theorized waves. In 1887, Heinrich proved Maxwell’s theories. Sir Oliver Logde extended the prototype system.

The Brandley increased the distance messages be transmitted. The coherer was perfected by

However, the heart of radio is based upon four circuits for transmitting and receiving. It is original concept demonstrated in his lecture at the Franklin Institute in in 1893. The four circuits, in two pairs, are still a fundamental of all radio and television equipment.

The States Supreme Court, in held Marconi’s most patent invalid, recognizing more significant contribution as the of radio technology.

Tesla an experimental station in Colorado Colorado in 1899, to experiment high voltage, high electricity and other phenomena.

the Colorado Springs Tesla magnifying transmitter was energized, it sparks 30 feet long. the outside antenna, these could be seen from a of ten miles. From this Tesla generated and sent out waves which mediated without wires for miles.

In Springs, where he stayed May 1899 until 1900, made what he regarded as his important discovery— terrestrial waves. By this discovery he that the Earth could be as a conductor and would be as responsive as a fork to electrical vibrations of a frequency. He also lighted 200 without wires from a of 25 miles( 40 kilometers) and created lightning.

At one time he was certain he had received from another planet in his laboratory, a claim that was met disbelief in some scientific

The old Waldorf Astoria was the residence of Tesla for many years. He there when he was at the height of and intellectual power. Tesla elaborate dinners, inviting people who later witnessed electrical experiments in his laboratory.

supported by J. Pierpont Morgan, built the Wardenclyffe laboratory and its transmitting tower in Shoreham, Island between 1901 and This huge landmark was 187 high, capped by a 68-foot dome which housed the transmitter. It was planned to be the first system, transmitting both and power without wires to any on the globe.

The huge magnifying discharging high frequency would turn the earth a gigantic dynamo which project its electricity in unlimited anywhere in the world.

Tesla’s of wireless electricity was used to ocean liners, destroy run industry and transportation and send instantaneously all over the globe. To the public’s imagination, Tesla that this wireless could even be used for communication. If Tesla were to reach Mars, how much difficult to reach Paris.

newspapers and periodicals interviewed and described his new system for supplying power to run all of the earth’s industry.

of a dispute between Morgan and as to the final use of the tower. Morgan his funds. The financier’s classic was, If anyone can draw on the where do we put the meter?

The erected, but tower was demolished in 1917 for security reasons. The site the Wardenclyffe tower stood exists with its 100 feet foundation still intact. laboratory designed by Stanford in 1901 is today still in condition and is graced with a plaque.

Tesla lectured to the community on his inventions in New York, and St. Louis and before scientific in both England and France in Tesla’s lectures and writings of the aroused wide admiration contemporaries popularized his inventions and untold numbers of younger men to the new field of radio and electrical

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Nikola Tesla was one of the most personalities in the American press, in century. According to Life special issue of September, Tesla is among the 100 most people of the last 1,000 He is one of the great men who divert the stream of history. Tesla’s celebrity was in its at the turn of the century.

His discoveries, inventions and vision had acceptance by the public, the scientific and American press. Tesla’s had extensive coverage in the scientific the daily and weekly press as as in the foremost literary and intellectual of the day. He was the Super Star.

wrote many autobiographical for the prominent journal Electrical . collected in the book, My Inventions . was gifted with intense of visualization and exceptional memory early youth on. He was able to construct, develop and perfect his completely in his mind before them to paper.

According to Gernsback, Tesla was possessed of a physical appearance over six tall with deep set and a stately manner. His impressions of were of a man endowed with physical and mental freshness, to surprise the world with and more inventions as he grew A lifelong bachelor he led a somewhat existence, devoting his full to science.

In 1894, he was given doctoral degrees by Columbia and University and the Elliot Cresson by the Franklin Institute. In 1934, the of Philadelphia awarded him the John medal for his polyphase power He was an honorary member of the National Light Association and a fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Science.

On one he turned down an invitation Kaiser Wilhelm II to come to to demonstrate his experiments and to receive a decoration.

In 1915, a New York article announced that and Edison were to share the Prize for physics. Oddly, man received the prize, the reason unclear. It was rumored that refused the prize because he not share with Edison, and Marconi had already received

(Tesla ‘s f riend Twain. famous American )

On his 75th birthday in 1931, the appeared on the cover of Time . On this occasion, Tesla congratulatory letters from than 70 pioneers in science and including Albert Einstein . letters were mounted and to Tesla in the form of a testimonial

Tesla died on January 1943 in the Hotel New Yorker, he had lived for the last ten years of his Room 3327 on the 33rd is the two-room suites he occupied.

A funeral was held at St. John the Cathedral in New York City. of condolence were received many notables, including the lady Eleanor Roosevelt and President Wallace.

Over 2000 people including several Nobel He was cremated in Ardsley on the Hudson, New His ashes were interned in a sphere, Tesla’s favorite on permanent display at the Tesla in Belgrade along with his mask.

In his speech presenting with the Edison medal, President Behrend of the Institute of Engineers eloquently expressed the Were we to seize and eliminate our industrial world the result of Mr. work, the wheels of industry cease to turn, our electric and trains would stop, our would be dark and our mills be idle and dead. His name an epoch in the advance of electrical

Mr. Behrend ended his speech a paraphrase of Pope’s lines on Nature and nature’s laws lay hid by God said ‘Let Tesla and all was light.

“ The world will a long time for Nikola equal in

achievement and imagination.” E.

Nikola Tesla’s Awards and

In 1917, Tesla was awarded the Medal, the most coveted prize in the United States.

Tesla’s name has been with an International Unit of Flux Density called

The United States Postal honored Tesla with a stamp in 1983.

Tesla was into the Inventor’s Hall of in 1975.

The Nikola Tesla is one of the most distinguished honors by the Institute of Electrical Engineers. The has been given annually 1976.

The Nikola Tesla is located on Goat Island to the man whose inventions were into the Niagara Falls Station in 1895. Tesla is as the inventor of polyphase alternating

The Nikola Tesla Corner located at the intersection of 40th and 6th Avenue in Manhattan, is a constant to all New Yorkers of the greatness of this

New York, July 10, 1998

Ljubo Vujov ic

Secretary New York

Tesla Memorial

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