The Electric Car

25 Мар 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи The Electric Car отключены
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

Research Paper

An estimated 600 more cars will be for space on the roads around the by the year 2020. That is two times the number of cars getting jammed up and pushed now. There are approximately 400 cars that exist on the today.

With this in vehicle population there be an ever-increasing demand for fuel or energies to run these vehicles. the depleting supply of oil already an for the U.S. especially, there is an interest in the possible alternative and fuels that could or can be in the future. Whether there be a flip from petrol-fueled to some other non-petrol in the near future is very to determine, but there are many that are being experimented and even beginning to be manufactured.

Cells, Ethanol, electric, solar and a few others are some of the top possibilities for our future vehicles

History of the Electric Vehicle

Of possible new sources of vehicle the electric vehicle is becoming popular even though it has around for years in the past. In it was one of the earliest vehicles made. between 1832 and 1839 exact year is uncertain), businessman Robert Anderson the first crude electric In 1865 and then again in the storage battery technology was improved and in turn enabled the vehicles to become a feasible, technology. Just before the 1900,Jamais Contente built his shaped” vehicle, which the 60 mph speed barrier of electric

His vehicle (pictured to the right) was to reach a speed of 65.79 mph

During the 1900s there actually more electric that gasoline-powered cars. The pictured at the left is a Rauch and Electric Sedan, built 1922. At one time there up to 50,000 Electric Vehicles on the and streets of the United States

Some of the first manufacturers of vehicles were Oldsmobile and These companies were with electric vehicle, but the gasoline engine market and took over the electric capabilities, Oldsmobile and Studebaker had to to the newer technology to keep up. In the production lines of vehicles from complete hand to motorized assembly lines and this point electric became virtually non-existent of cities.

One of the hugely contributing to the decline of electric vehicles was the of the starter motor on the gasoline which ended the need for the and dangerous crank to start the Here the gasoline cars over (A Little).

What the Vehicle Has to Offer

Although the vehicle (EV) has been set for some time now as the technology to up with the gasoline vehicles has slow and sometimes non-existent, is still a great chance the EV will make a comeback. and technology are now being put back the electric vehicles because of how more efficient they are to These new electric vehicles definite green advantages.

These EVs do not emit any pollutants and great energy efficiencies

One of the biggest benefits of the EV is the fact it reduces our dependence on oil and the fluctuation that go along with it. To go with conserving resources the vehicle gives off a negligent of heat comparatively speaking to the and diesel vehicles on the market which contribute to the world of global warming (Wikipedia).

at what is being driven on the now and comparing to the EVs, there is a reduction in noise from the although the road noise the tires and drivetrain is still apparent. Another advantage the propulsion method used in EVs is there are many less parts than in a normal car, which in turn for less breakdowns and need for and parts. Electric vehicles are one of the and most environmentally friendly available at this point in

These vehicles reduce by more than 90% when are compared with the most gasoline powered vehicles on the This statistic includes the from the power plants generate the power to charge the batteries (Electric).

A special of the EV comes when it is time for else to go to the station to fill up petrol. In this case the EV will not be making those to the station to fill up anymore. The can happen at home overnight or at during the day. The car is simply in while it is stationary for a given period. Another way the car is charged is it is being driven.

When the car is to a stop and the brakes are applied, the energy of the car is converted back chemical energy in the battery. is a double-profiting operation where the car is slowed down as well as recharged simultaneously (Wikipedia).

the EVs to the Gasoline Cars

A normal powered vehicle ranges in per gallon (mpg) from 16 to 30. If an EV has a mpg given to it, it would be around the range, which in turn approximately three cents a The cost to own the EVs has a large dependency to do the type and capacity of the batteries The batteries are the most expensive of the car. The technology in batteries has increasing greatly in the past 20

The need for better batteries has increasing with the use of laptop cell phones, and other devices. Because of these advances, the electric vehicle has reaped the benefits by acquiring of the technology for its own larger batteries

Probably the largest disadvantage in to the conventional vehicles is the driving for EVs. Currently the average for an EV is anywhere from 50 to 130 miles per The fluctuation in range can be cause in by the vehicle’s weight, engineering, type of battery, weather and the use of heating and air conditioning.

The batteries are the of the car that makes all the difference. like the engines are chosen in today for their power and so the batteries are chosen for strength and (Consumer).

One thing that first-time drivers are expecting an EV is slow acceleration and sluggish abilities. To their pleasant the EVs have a modest acceleration, depending on the size of the motors and the acceleration can vary greatly. AC motors are used and approximately 50 like in the yellow Tzero EV on the the acceleration is no different if not better. the Tzero has taken a Dodge off the line in a drag test. motors tend to have a constant torque even at low which plays a part in an efficient acceleration.

Some of the of EVs have an electric motor for wheel. Having these motors not only allows for propulsion, but also for the use of braking and the kinetic energy back chemical energy in the batteries. The that the car gets is also with each wheel

In some of the EV models the electric can be mounted directly inside the for the wheel, which enables a of all the moving parts between the and the wheel. When there is no differential, or transmission, the EVs have drivetrain rotational inertia, just takes more to overcome (Wikipedia).

Looking at efficiency more closely can how much more efficient EVs A typical EV uses .17 to .37 kilowatt-hours of per mile. Most of this consumption has to do with the inefficiencies of the batteries.

The average gasoline vehicle gets about 23 per gallon, which is equivalent to kWh per mile. This comparison is the approximation that there are kWh per US gallon of gasoline (Wikipedia).

To these EVs the electricity needs to be from somewhere and from resource. Depending on how the electricity is determines on how much of an improvement is in terms of CO 2 emission. The improvement in can range from 55% to 99% better on the way the electricity is generated.

To the right is a of where the United States its electricity from as of 2005. of these methods releases CO 2 but in different amounts. The US national of 1.28 lbs CO 2 /kWh for electricity gives the EVs a range of .2 to .5 lbs CO 2 /mi, is not much compared to the .83 lbs/mi for the US vehicle (Wikipedia).

How the Electric Vehicles Operate

The way the EVs are has a wide range of designs looking at the different manufacturers. of the models are more similar to the of a gasoline-powered vehicle and some are different such as the models the electric motors placed in the housing. Although there are different models and makes, are three main components are put into the EV: the batteries, the electric controller, and the electric motor(s). In the electric motor controller the power from the batteries and it to the motor(s).

Another component of the EV is the charger, which is chosen on the type and number of batteries

Power from the Electric

To know how the electric cars the basic principles of an electric need to be known. An electric has power and in turn puts out a that is measured in torque. is the rotational measurement of force. To the is a diagram showing the basic of torque.

The units of torque are Nm times meters) or ft-lbs pounds). When looking at the behind an electric motor we to remember what power is. The equation for power is:

P = Tw

This is the T is torque and the w is the rotational velocity. For a motor there are two parameters can help show how the motor The first parameter is the Stall (T s ), which is the minimum torque to stop the motor shaft turning.

The second parameter is the No Speed (W n ), which is the rotational of the motor when there is no being applied to it. The equations for parameters follow respectively:

The can then be determined in terms of torque or velocity with equations by multiplying the first one by w and the by t. The new equations are then functions of torque or velocity and are as follows:

function: P(w) = -(T s / w n ) w 2 + T s w

Torque P(w) = -(w n / T s ) T 2 + w n T

Directly Below is the function and the graph on the right is the functon

By looking at the two graphs we can see there is a maximum power for a range of speed and torque. The will be performing at its maximum if it is running at the specific speed and For each motor the optimum and torque that create the power are going to be different. In to make an EV have the correct and acceleration capabilities, the electric has to have the correct torque and to match the power needed to the vehicle up hills, against and in many other varying

These requirements are used to determine the size and power of the motors for the EVs, which can be different depending on how many are used for the electric car. If wheel has a motor driving it, the and size of the motors needed be less, but when there are one or two motors, the power needed be much more (Design).

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars

for the EV

To power the electric motors the can be stored in various kinds and of batteries. These batteries a huge role in how the vehicle and how far it can travel before it is in need of Some batteries are made for a output while others are for duration and longevity.

The basic of a battery is fairly simple. A is just an electric cell undergoes a chemical reaction causing electrons to flow, in turn can power some of electrical device. This cell consists of a negative an electrolyte, which conducts the a separator, also an ion conductor; and a electrode. When the negative is connected to the positive electrode the of electrons begins with the electrode supplying the positive with electrons.

To gain from this flow of the device being powered is in between the positive and negative and in this way the electrons must through the device. The batteries are used for electric cars are which means that the of electrons can be reversed to flow the way they came from to “reload” the negative electrode so the process can be repeated again

There are numerous kinds of that can be used for the electric which include; Nickel-Cadmium, Metal Hydride, and Lithium as well as others.

The Nickel-Cadmium uses nickel oxide in its electrode (cathode), a cadmium in its negative electrode (anode), and hydroxide solution as its electrolyte. is one of the older forms of rechargeable it is also one of the cheapest and most This is not the best battery for an EV of its unreliability. These batteries lose charge capacity if they are not maintained and charged

This loss in capacity also be greatly increased if the is not completely discharged first recharging. The proper charger for batteries has the capability of discharging the completely and then turning and recharging it (Lithium).

Nickel Hydride batteries are the “new and Nickel-Cadmium rechargeable battery. are partly becoming more because of the health and environmental with the production of Nickel-Cadmium. is still much research into the Nickel Metal batteries. Most of the focus is on the hydride anode. The desired would have the following a long life cycle, capacity, high rate of and discharge at a constant voltage, and capacity.

Right now the Nickel Metal (NiMH) batteries have the most economical and promising for the of electric cars although could be improved. These are cost efficient, are available, and are The batteries on the market right now proven to last the life of and EV or at ten years and 100,000 vehicle

Many are saying that the can probably last closer to miles than 100,000 When charging these it is important to prevent them being overcharged. Overcharging the will decrease life and

A Constant trickle charge is but not continuous. It is better to go in cycles so the batteries are charging for a period of and then left set for some before the charging continues. The for these batteries often this capability as well as able to stop the charging when it is fully charged to the overcharging (Wikipedia).

The Lithium Ion design is one of the newer battery on the market. This is not to be confused the light, single-use, straight battery. These Lithium are mainly used for portable that are aimed at a lighter The Lithium Ion batteries have a density, which essentially that for the same weight and as other batteries it can store energy. This new technology is for the EV because the EV utilizes the energy and the more energy available the the range on a charge.

Charging Ions are different than batteries because it is better to them topped off with a rather than completely them and recharging them. is the biggest drawback for the EV and why it is not very for the EV because they get completely during transit (Lithium). The to the left is a prototype of a 75 watt-hour/kilogram ion polymer battery.

Newer cells can provide up to 130 Wh/kg and through thousands of charging (Wikipedia).

The EV of Today

The electric today are just beginning to back onto the market many believe they pushed off to make way for gasoline and the profits available from Many say that the oil companies the EV disappear back when the oil was and not considered a scarce resource and now the supply of oil is more of an issue, the vehicle is finding its way back the economy.

Today there is controversy in what GM is doing or not in terms of battery technology and They bought the rights to the batteries for the EVs, but they showed no signs of an attempt to them. Even more the rights were sold to which was then absorbed Chevron making it even difficult to get the technology for the batteries. To the is the GM EV1 that has been using the in recent years.

In 1997 GM was using bad battery from Delco and better lead-acid batteries weighing 1300 pounds and only the EV1 a range of 110 miles per charge. GM used the NiMH batteries in the EV1 to give it a range of up to 160 miles and only 700 pounds. The technology in batteries is a huge benefit and possible increase in technology the EV1 be a huge success (Economist).

also has a very promising EV for the called the RAV4-EV. The average EV about 3 to 6 miles per kWh of stored This average comes the everyday driving of the EV1, Honda EV-plus, Ford and the Toyota RAV4-EV. To the right is a of the RAV4-EV.

For being an SUV type it does fairly well power and battery endurance. EV can hold at most 28 kWh and can go approximately 80 at 80 mph, 100 miles at 65mph, 120 at 55 mph, and up to 150 miles at 35 mph. this to the EV1, which is more aerodynamic, the EV1 gets 4 to 6 miles per kWh (Electric).


the number of expected vehicles on the roads in the near future the for this alternative energy is evident and has promising returns. just the batteries, electric and the modulator as the three significant of the car there are many benefits of vehicles in comparison to the gasoline-powered The lack of repair and maintenance of vehicles will most soon be a huge seller for the EV.

of these vehicles are on the road but not in an available form for the common The hope for these vehicles is they will be able to replace the gasoline vehicles nearly the same range of as them. In doing this it reduce the use of the ever decreasing of petroleum.

The EV is not a new idea, but the technology to the old concepts of the EV is still being on to make it more promising for fast-paced world.

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars


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