The Hybrid Car Battery A Definitive Guide HybridCars com

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What Is a Car Battery?

A hybrid car battery is any other battery—except that it is and has enough juice to move a heavy vehicle down the for a few feet or a few miles.

How Does It

Like all batteries, hybrid have two electrodes (which or emit an electric charge) sit in an ion-rich solution called the (An ion, by the way, is an atom or of atoms with an electrical

The electrodes are typically very so a polymer film, called a prevents them from which would create a circuit. An on-off switch in device is powered by the battery—your or laptop—bridges the cell’s electrodes to power. That’s when the reaction begins.

Keep in What we commonly call “a is actually a battery pack houses many individual Your mobile phone is just one single cell, but larger—even a laptop battery—uses cells working together.

elements in one electrode are in a chemical where they are easily to combine with other emitting electrons (energy) in the Those elements are tugged the electrolyte and the separator toward the electrode. The ions of the negative (anode) give up electrons; the ions coming toward the accept them. The electrons during this process through the external circuit your phone), producing a of charge in the opposite direction to the of ions.

During recharge, current is into the cell, reversing the

As we take a tour of hybrid remember one thing: Total determines the vehicle’s electric whereas available power its acceleration.

Today s Hybrid Car Nickel Metal Hydride

Prius Hybrid Battery

The pack of the second generation Prius consists of 28 Panasonic nickel metal hydride containing six 1.2 volt cells—connected in to produce a nominal voltage of volts. The total number of is 168, compared with 228 packaged in 38 modules in the first Prius. The pack is positioned the back seat.

The weight of the battery pack is 53.3 kg. The power capability of the Prius is about 20 kW at 50 percent state-of-charge. The capability increases with temperatures and decreases at lower The Prius has a computer that’s dedicated to keeping the Prius at the optimum temperature and optimum level.

The Prius supplies air from the cabin as thermal for cooling the batteries. The air is drawn by a blower installed above the side rear tire

(Photos courtesy of the Automotive Development Center.)

Toyota Hybrid Battery

The nickel hydride battery used in Hybrid—and the Lexus RX 400h—is in a newly developed metal casing. The 240 cells can deliver voltage of 288 volts—but the motor-generators can operate on variable voltage from 280 volts to 650 volts. The pack supplies 288 volts, but the converter, a part of the inverter the transaxle, changes this to 500

This battery pack 40 percent more power the Prius battery, despite 18 percent smaller.

Each of the has its own monitoring and cooling control The cooling performance reduces losses due to excessive heat, that the battery can supply electric power to the motors at all The battery-monitoring unit manages and recharging by the generator and motors to the charge level constant the car is running.

The battery pack is under the rear seats.

Escape Hybrid Battery

The Escape Hybrid’s battery made by Sanyo, consists of 250 nickel metal hydride As with other hybrid packs, the cells are similar in to a size D flashlight battery. individual battery cell, in a stainless steel case, is 1.3 The cells are welded and wrapped in groups of five to form a

There are 50 modules in the battery The total voltage of the battery is 330 volts.

Honda Insight

The Honda Insight’s battery made up of 120 Panasonic 1.2-volt metal hydride D cells is of 100A discharge, and 50A charge The system limits the usable to 4ah to extend battery life. battery pack output is 144 The batteries are located under the compartment floor, along the Honda Integrated Motor power control unit.

Honda used technology for its EV Plus electric car for the original of the Insight’s battery system.

Vue Hybrid Battery

The Saturn Vue Line’s 36-volt nickel hydride battery, designed and in America by Cobasys, is capable of and receiving more than kW of peak power. The hybrid is used to provide both accessory power and power to the battery pack. The pack under the cargo area, cargo room unchanged the standard Vue—but drivers the benefit of a spare tire.

Ion Battery For Next Generation and Electric Cars

Lithium ion (or batteries are important because have a higher energy amount of energy they by weight, or by volume—than any other The rule of thumb is that cells hold roughly as much energy per pound as do the generation of advanced batteries, (NiMH)—which are used in all current including the Toyota Prius. in turn, holds about the energy per pound of the conventional (PbA) 12-Volt battery powers your car’s motor.

It’s Li-ion’s to carry so much energy makes electric cars

Compare the batteries from legendary EV1 to those for its upcoming extended-range EV. The 1997 EV1 pack lead-acid cells; it was almost 8 long and weighed 1200 But today’s Volt pack, lithium-ion cells, stores the amount of energy (16 kilowatt-hours) in a container weighing just 400

There’s Not One Lithium Ion Battery

there is no one lithium-ion battery, this mistake is often in the press. Several different formulations for the electrodes compete; has its pros and cons. “No chemistry be the perfect one,” says Brandt, the chief executive of a German cell maker. The (or negative electrode) is typically of graphite, but the cathode (positive chemistry varies widely.

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As as any other factor, what the is made from determines the capacity. The critical feature is the at which the cathode can absorb and free lithium ions. of several competing cathode offers a different mix of cost, performance, and safety.

Let s take a at the most important cathode

Cobalt Dioxide

Cobalt is the most popular choice for small cells (those in mobile phone or laptop). been on the market for 15 years, so proven and its costs are known, like nickel, cobalt is Cobalt is more reactive nickel or manganese, meaning it high electrical potential paired with graphite giving higher voltage.

It has the energy density—but when charged, it is the most prone to (fire) caused by internal This can lead to thermal where one cell causes its to combust, igniting the whole almost instantly (think videos of burning laptops). the internal impedance of a cobalt extent to which it “pushes against an alternating current—increases not with use but with time as

That means an unused cobalt cell holds energy than a brand-new

Cobalt dioxide cells are by dozens of Japanese, South and Chinese companies, but only Motors uses them—6,831 of to be specific—in an electric car. pack uses sensors, isolation, and liquid cooling to that any energy released if a shorts out can’t ignite any of its

Nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM)

Nickel-cobalt-manganese is somewhat easier to make. is cheaper than cobalt, but it slightly in electrolytes—which gives it a life. Substituting nickel and for some of the cobalt lets tune the cell either for power (voltage) or for greater density, though not both at the time. NCM remains susceptible to runaway, though less so cobalt dioxide.

Its long-term is still unclear, and nickel and are both still expensive Manufacturers include Hitachi, and Sanyo.

Nickel-cobalt-aluminum (NCA)

(NCA) is similar to NCM, lower-cost aluminum replacing the Companies that make NCA include Toyota and Johnson a joint venture between a automotive supplier and a French firm.

Manganese oxide (MnO)

Manganese oxide (MnO) offers higher at a lower cost than because its three-dimensional crystalline provides more surface permitting better ion flow electrodes. But the drawback is a much energy density. GS Yuasa, LG NEC-Lamilion Energy, and Samsung cells with such LG Chem is one of two companies competing to its cells used in the Chevrolet

Iron phosphate (FePo)

phosphate (FePo) might be the promising new cathode, thanks to its and safety. The compound is inexpensive, and the bonds between the iron, and oxygen atoms are far stronger those between cobalt and atoms, the oxygen is much to detach when overcharged. So if it it can do so without overheating.

Unfortunately, phosphate cells work at a voltage than cobalt, so of them must be chained to provide enough power to a motor. A123 Systems—which is for the Volt contract as well—uses in their FePo cathodes, it says produces better and longer life. Other include Gaia and Valence

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