Land Rover Diesel ERAD Hybrid The second key technology of the …

12 Июн 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Land Rover Diesel ERAD Hybrid The second key technology of the … отключены
Land Rover HYBRID

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Land Rover Diesel ERAD Hybrid

At the London Motor Show in July, Land Rover has introduced a system fitted on the prototype vehicle diesel ERAD Hybrids to substantially reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining the traditional off-road performance, the highlight of the mark. Currently testing on Freelander 2, it will equip all models in the range. Several projects that reduce emissions and fuel economy are under consideration, among them the Stop-Start system will be available as standard from 2009 on Freelander 2 diesel manual transmission.

The Diesel ERAD Hybrid and e_TERRAIN TECHNOLOGIES

The prototype hybrid diesel engine Land Rover are currently under technical testing and evaluation road

They are designed around a clean and efficient diesel engine — it is one of the first diesel hybrid vehicle programs in the world

These prototypes make use of new technologies among which: the ERAD (Electric Rear Axle Drive or electric powered rear axle), which helps to give them the legendary Land Rover road capabilities, the CISG (Integrated Crank Starter Generator), a starter-generator mounted on the motor shaft, the Lithium Ion battery pack for a new generation

A hybrid modular and scalable in terms of size, designed to be used on future models of engines and the Land Rover range

A search through the partnership between Land Rover and the Agency for control of British Energy, the Energy Saving Trust

A proprietary technology, which is one of many developments undertaken by Land Rover, which are grouped under the generic name of e_TERRAIN TECHNOLOGIES

Land Rover engineers are currently conducting road tests with the prototypes of these revolutionary vehicles Diesel ERAD Hybrids. The purpose of these vehicles is to reduce considerably the emissions of CO2 and other gases while maintaining the performance characteristics of all-terrain Land Rover. The technologies are tested on Freelander 2 modified, but eur modular design can evolve in terms of size: they may therefore one day equip the entire range of models and powertrains available to Land Rover.

This program is part of a range of research initiated by Land Rover’s sustainable development: These programs are grouped under the common name of e_TERRAIN TECHNOLOGIES.

Diesel ERAD Hybrids addition, Land Rover is also working on several projects for reducing emissions and fuel economy. Their results will meet on the range vehicles now and well into the next decade. These projects include the comportment Stop-Start system shutdown and automatic restart of the engine — which will be available as standard from next year on all Freelander 2 diesel models with manual transmission — as well as advanced hybrid systems and new architectures for lightweight vehicles.

We unveiled the innovative technology of the ERAD during the presentation of the LRX concept car earlier this year, says Phil Popham, the Managing Director of Land Rover. We keep our commitments to sustainable development from now to full-scale tests on prototype drivers. The Diesel ERAD Hybrids represent a crucial step for Land Rover.

This is a real enforcement of these concepts and shows that the can be obtained by combining our capabilities legendary off-road TECHNOLOGIES e_TERRAIN these revolutionaries.

Introduction of Diesel Hybrid ERAD

The diesel engine Land Rover ERAD Hybrid was developed as part of a research project with a budget of several million pounds, partly funded by the Energy Saving Trust, namely the control of the agency Energy UK. The goal is to create a hybrid system of parallel type propulsion compatible with 4×4 off-road. The parallel hybrid can run either on electricity or by regular vehicles, or with both modes simultaneously.

This system is intended to reduce CO2 emissions by over 20% in NEDC driving cycle and 30% in real conditions of urban use, the domain of choice for hybrids.

Under certain conditions, the hybrid gasoline / electric generation manage to be slightly more efficient than the best non-hybrid diesel. Thus, the Range Rover ambition is to produce a hybrid system based on a diesel powertrain modern, efficient and prop afin make the best of both technologies. To achieve this, Land Rover has developed the ERAD, an exclusive system of electric drive mounted on the rear axle.

The ERAD may even provide more in terms of cross-road.


The most important aspect of ERAD is its ability to propel a Land Rover on its own, a feature crucial to reduce emissions in urban driving. Although ERAD is mounted on the rear axle, it can transmit power to the front wheels through the transmission shaft, thereby propelling the vehicle’s 4×4.

The second key technology of the Diesel ERAD Hybrid is the CISG, that is to say, a starter-generator mounted integrated motor shaft. It equips the new Freelander 2 prototype testing turbocharged four-cylinder diesel. The CISG is a powerful electric motor. On the prototype, it is connected to a dual clutch transmission.

The CISG uses extra engine and produces an additional torque is relayed to the transmission, but it also serves as a starter for the diesel engine.

The diesel engine, the CISG and ERAD combine to create a hybrid. Depending on driving conditions, using either the power of diesel or electricity, an optimal combination of both. The management mode of propulsion is confined in a sophisticated power electronics. Furthermore, the ERAD and the CISG can be used to recover kinetic energy during regenerative braking.

When braking, energy that would normally dissipated as heat is recovered to recharge the battery pack special vehicle.

This pack, which occupies approximately the size of a spare wheel is housed in the trunk. This Lithium Ion battery technology. They store energy for the CISG and store electricity generated during regenerative braking operation. These batteries are lighter than nickel-metal hydride batteries typically used in other hybrid production.

Their technology allows them to both store more energy but also to recharge faster.

Others include pump electro-hydraulic power steering, another innovation intended to save energy. Unlike conventional pumps consume power continuously, it can supply the system only when necessary.

Integration with Terrain Response

The Diesel ERAD Hybrid uses what may emerge as the next generation of Terrain Response, a Land Rover’s award-winning. This feature allows the driver to take full advantage of hybrid technology while enjoying unrivaled performance off-road. The prototypes have five different programming methods Terrain Response: Eco, Dynamic, Grass / Gravel / Snow, Mud and Ruts, Sand.

The Eco mode is the mode most used in normal driving cycle. It is designed for normal and allows the vehicle to use diesel or electric power depending on driving conditions. This mode is ideal for urban travel at low speeds. They are made without any emission diesel engine is automatically muted.

The ERAD then propels the vehicle electrically through the rear axle. The continuous acceleration and flexible add to refinement of conduct while regenerative braking recovers kinetic energy.

Mode DynamiqueÉco

On an open road, constant speed, the stresses and power requirements demanded of the hybrid are moderate. Diesel is now in his element. It transmits its power to the front wheels and the electronic engine management to optimize the consumption greater frugality, producing low CO2 emissions.

The four-wheel drive is available at all times, ready to fire if the conditions warrant.

When overtaking, or when the driver wants to have maximum performance, the two engines work together to produce maximum power and torque. The recovery function of the braking energy is available.

Mode Grass / Gravel / Snow

This program is designed to maximize traction while minimizing the torque transmitted to the wheels to prevent slippage and wastage of energy. The car starts on electric propulsion alone, the power being distributed by the ERAD on four wheels. The diesel is triggered only when it became necessary.

The use of electric propulsion allows a very precise determination of torque and provides maximum traction as well as reduced CO2 emissions.

Mud and Ruts mode

Depending on driver input, there are two options for this mode. The first option is a low torque and starting to electricity only. The powerful diesel remains available at any time.

The alternative uses of diesel power assisted by the electric motor to deliver power and torque more important, we obtain a good adhesion control and a power reserve available at any time.

This mode is a setting great power well suited to high surface energy loss such as the soft sand. The ERAD comes then add its power to that of the diesel engine, which achieves an even higher torque than the diesel engine alone.

The Diesel ERAD Hybrid technology in the spotlight

The ERAD — powered by electric rear axle

The electric propulsion system for the rear axle ERAD is exclusive developed by Land Rover. Son goal is to allow a hybrid vehicle to meet the demanding specifications of the company’s off-road.

The ERAD is mounted on the rear axle. It uses a powerful brushless electric motor (brushless) 288 volts, can produce a power of 25 kW continuous and 35 kW peak. The maximum torque is a robust 200 Nm As the laws of physics suggest, this torque is available instantly, upon turning on the engine.

It is therefore the ideal in terms of performance for off-road at low speed.

The electric motor drives the rear wheels through a gearbox with a 8:1 ratio and an epicyclic differential. The Haldex coupling is connected to the ERAD decouples the front and rear axles for use in front wheel drive only, then the power being transmitted to the front by the driveshaft. If the coupler is closed mode electric propulsion alone, the torque generated by the ERAD is transmitted to all four wheels.

An oil circuit powered by a separate electric pump cools the internal organs of the engine.

The ERAD can also recover energy during regenerative braking. An electronic module makes it possible for a brushless motor to operate as an electric generator. This mode locks when the driver lifts his foot and he begins braking.

This powerful engine is transformed into an excellent generator and it uses the energy of deceleration to recharge the Lithium Ion battery. In four-wheel drive, the recovery of energy during deceleration is maximum even on slippery surfaces, and without compromising adhesion.

When used off-road, the ERAD torque does not add that, if necessary, and as the electric torque is maximum at a standstill, this solution provides even more control at low speeds and better traction to get out of a bad situation (like on the packed snow or wet grass) or tow.

On the road, the ERAD can run slowly until 30 km / h, by using only electric power, he can count on the integrated starter generator (Integrated Starter-Generator, ISG ) to restart the engine automatically when it becomes useful. From that time, electric power continues to assist the mechanical drive until the engine running at its ideal diet, with a double advantage: the fuel consumption and emissions C02.

Another advantage of the ISG is that it automatically stops the engine when the vehicle is stopped at a red light or in traffic, which prevents him from running for anything, and restarts smoothly, quickly whenever it is needed again.

The electric motor runs on energy stored in a dedicated pack of lithium-ion high-voltage and high capacity, totally independent of the normal supply by a 12 volt battery. This pack is recharged continuously by a system of transformation of energy released during braking, which also passes through the ERAD system.

LRX also comes with hill descent control (Hill Descent Control, HDC) and Terrain Response, Land Rover-exclusive that optimizes drivability and comfort, while maximizing traction. On LRX, there are five possible settings, including an all new ‘Eco': planned for the road, this setting configures all the vehicle parameters to reduce fuel consumption. The other four settings Terrain Response modes are ‘sports’ (also new) ‘current conduct’, ‘sand’ and ‘grass / gravel / snow’ (a single program for all those slippery surfaces)

The CISG — starter-generator mounted on the motor shaft

The CISG is the other brushless electric motor fitted to the prototype Land Rover hybrid. As its name suggests, it serves as a starter motor and starts the diesel engine when it is appropriate, particularly in situations of automatic stop-and-Stop-Start. But the CISG can also act as an electric generator.

Land Rover HYBRID

This system, which is integrated into the dual clutch gear prototypes, can even be used to provide additional electrical power, thereby limiting gas emissions.

The Stop-Start system may well be simple, its effectiveness in reducing emissions is not as great. At idle, rather than letting it idle, it stops it.

As part of this strategy for stopping-restarting, the CISG uses the most sophisticated technology and most reliable currently available. His great speed allows it restarts the engine in four tenths of a second, while consuming passing less fuel than a conventional starter. Like the ERAD, the CISG is also used to recover kinetic energy during regenerative braking.

When the driver lifts his foot, the CISG switches to generator and recharges the battery while propulsion while slowing the vehicle.

The Lithium Ion battery pack

The battery pack of high technology is also one of the key components of a hybrid vehicle. It is he who provides power electric motors and can store energy recovered during deceleration. Almost all existing hybrids use battery type nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and if the technology succeeds without classical problem to deliver power quickly, it is however not very efficient in terms of rapid charging.

It is therefore poorly suited to the concept of regenerative braking.

New technology Lithium Ion (Li Ion) cons is lighter, more efficient and provides better energy density. It can also absorb rapid refills generated by regenerative braking and provide more power when the driver wishes. Land Rover is working in partnership with specialized equipment to develop a special battery, called NanoTitanate.

These batteries are not prone to memory effect; factor even more interesting, they do not contain toxic or heavy metals and do not use nickel. Without resorting to extraction of minerals, this technology is more environmentally responsible.

In some ways, these new batteries behave a bit like supercapacitors since they absorb and recreate the energy very quickly, which makes regenerative braking technology that really works. Lithium batteries NanoTitanate of Diesel Hybrid ERAD produce 288 Volts. They can store energy for quick refills and accumulate twelve times more energy than an equivalent NiMH battery.

Their specific energy (that is to say, their power to weight ratio) is 2500 W / kg against 1400 W / kg for NiMH batteries, an improvement of 178%. A Lithium Ion battery weighs 32 kg a rule against 60 for a NiMH, or a weight gain of 47%. The amount of usable energy stored in a Lithium NanoTitanate per kilo is 36Wh/kg against 13.5 Wh / kg for a NiMH, an improvement of 267%.

The electric propulsion system is separated from the general vehicle electrical system, which remains, he, at 12 volts. The latter is powered by a DC circuit connected to the propulsion.

Two-state inverters are water-cooled rear-mounted vehicle and under the hood. They convert the DC current stored in lithium ion batteries into alternating current for supplying the two electric motors.

The inverter supplies before the starter-generator CISG and the one installed at the rear fuels ERAD. The inverter also includes a rear dc transformer that transforms 288 volts of battery pack 12-volt electrical system for the generation

System of vehicle control

The brain of Diesel Hybrid ERAD actually coexists with the onboard computer which manages the Terrain Response modes. Depending on driver input and vehicle movement, this system dynamically determines the optimal application of power diesel, electric or combined. This control module is working symbiosis with Terrain Response, which allocates its share to the couple on four wheels and ensures maximum efficiency regardless of road conditions.

The conventional power steering systems use energy continuously, once the engine is running. By using an electro-hydraulic pump can be used by cons energy more wisely, only when necessary. The Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering and can help achieve fuel savings of almost 2%.

TECHNOLOGY e_TERRAIN

The Diesel ERAD Hybrid is not that one of the actions undertaken by Land Rover in the context of its environmental policy. The company has indeed set a target in the years to come, using more sustainable technologies and continually reduce emissions: all these environmental commitments is generally referred to by name TECHNOLOGIES e_TERRAIN. An impressive budget of 700 million pounds has been allocated to sustainable technologies by Jaguar and Land Rover.

Land Rover engineers are working on advanced engine technologies and simple structures that allow the brand to achieve the highest levels of CO2 emissions in its sector. However, this is by no means the first sacrificial capacity legendary Land Rover on all-terrain and models of the future may actually see their performance increase with new powertrains, such as ERAD.

The first technologies developed under TECHNOLOGIES e_TERRAIN will appear on models on sale in 2009. We discover first a Freelander 2 diesel manual transmission equipped with the Stop-Start.

The action plan of the company in reducing CO2 emissions, however extends beyond this horizon. Land Rover has joined the Strategic Council for the UK Government Technology (CST) afi n to develop the green technologies of tomorrow. The TSB and Transport Ministry have announced their participation to 16 development projects with a total budget of 52 million pounds.

The British state will participate in 23 million to this research effort as part of its Program Innovation for Vehicle Emissions in Low Carbon. The challenge of this program is indeed to develop new types of engines and two promising of these projects are very similar work on Hybrids currently being undertaken by Land Rover.

In addition to technologies that are already being assessed through practical prototype diesel hybrids Erad Land Rover, new technologies will be developed within ten years under the venire e_TERRAIN TECHNOLOGIES:

The Stop-Start feature, which will be fitted as standard on all Freelander 2 diesel models with manual transmission from 2009

A technology of intelligent regenerative braking

The starter-generator belt (BISG), a micro-hybrid technology

The Intelligent Management System of the Power Motive (IPSM), which minimizes the electrical energy used by the vehicle

The Hybrid flywheel, another innovative technology that improves performance and reduces consumption and CO2 emissions

The lightweight vehicle architectures and optimized vehicle structures

Vehicles Hybrid Series autonomy

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