Hybrid Synergy Drive Video Encyclopedia

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LEXUS GS GS 300h SE E-CVT Continuosuly Variable

Principle [ edit ]

Toyota with cutaway view of HSD and generator

Toyota’s HSD system a normal geared transmission an electromechanical system. An internal engine (ICE) delivers most efficiently over a speed range, but the wheels to be driven over the vehicle’s speed range. In a conventional the geared transmission delivers discrete engine speed-torque requirements to the wheels.

Geared may be manual, with a clutch. or with a torque converter. but allow the engine and the wheels to at different speeds. The driver can the speed and torque delivered by the with the accelerator and the transmission transmits nearly all of the available to the wheels which rotate at rate than the engine, by a equal to the gear ratio for the selected gear. However, are a limited number of gears or ratios that the driver can from, typically 4 to 6. This gear-ratio set, forces the crankshaft to rotate at speeds the ICE is less efficient, i.e. a liter of fuel produces joules. Optimal engine requirements for different vehicle and acceleration conditions can be gauged by either tachometer RPM rate or noise in comparison with speed.

When an engine is required to efficiently across a broad of RPMs, due to its coupling to a geared manufacturers are limited in their for improving engine efficiency. or lifespan, as well as reducing the or weight of the engine. This is why the for an engine-generator is often much more efficient, more and longer life than one for an automobile or other variable application.

However, a continuously variable allows the driver (or the automobile to effectively select the optimal ratio required for any desired or power. The transmission is not limited to a set of gears. This lack of frees the engine to operate at its (most efficient) speed ). The most efficient speed for an ICE is often around 1500-2000 rpm for the power required to propel an

An HSD vehicle will typically run the at its optimal efficiency speed power is needed to charge or accelerate the car, shutting the engine entirely when power is required.

Like a an HSD transmission continuously adjusts the gear ratio between the and the wheels to maintain the engine while the wheels increase rotational speed during This is why Toyota describes vehicles as having an e-CVT ( continuously variable transmission ) required to classify the transmission for standards specification lists or purposes.

Power flows [ edit ]

In the car design the alternator (AC generator) and (DC motor) are considered accessories are attached to the internal combustion (ICE) which normally a transmission to power the wheels the vehicle. A battery is used to start the car’s internal engine and run accessories when the is not running. The alternator is used to the battery and run the accessories when the is running.

The HSD system replaces the transmission, alternator and starter with two powerful permanent motors [ 7 ] (a secondary starter/generator being designated MG1, the drive-regeneration motor being MG2), associated power (3 DC-AC inverters and 2 DC-DC ), computerized control system and (acting as a second differential ), and HV (HVB) for HSD’s main storage.

Through the power splitter, a full hybrid’s HSD system allows for the following intelligent flows: [ 8 ]

Auxiliary power

HVB DC-DC converter — battery

12VDC battery Various standard and automatic saving auxiliary functions

charge (Recharging and/or catalytic converter and/or comfort HVAC)


Battery or EV drive

HVB — MG2 wheels

Engine motor (Moderate acceleration)

ICE — wheels

ICE — MG1 MG2 — wheels

Engine with charge (Highway

ICE — wheels


Engine and motor drive charge (Heavy power such as in steep hills)

ICE wheels

LEXUS GS GS 300h SE E-CVT Continuosuly Variable


ICE MG1 — MG2 — wheels

power or gradual slowing power situations)


ICE — MG1 — MG2 —

HVB — MG2 — wheels


Wheels — MG2

Wheels — MG1 — ICE uses MG1 to spin ICE which battery — allowing charge from MG2, and links ICE to wheels causing braking ICE RPM increases when level of HVB is too much to accept electricity from MG2, or effort from driver the brake pedal)

Regenerative braking

wheels MG2 — HVB

Hard braking

disk/rear drum (rear in UK) — wheels

All disk wheels (2010 and newer).

electronics from Prius Classic

LEXUS GS GS 300h SE E-CVT Continuosuly Variable
LEXUS GS GS 300h SE E-CVT Continuosuly Variable

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