Intresting Article On Hybrid Drives GreenHybrid Hybrid Cars

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Intresting Article On Hybrid from Wikipedia

Hybrid Drive

Hybrid Synergy ( HSD ) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by and used in that company’s . Highlander Hybrid . Camry . and Lexus RX 400h automobiles . It the characteristics of an electric drive and a variable transmission . using and transistors in place of toothed . The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire with no direct mechanical between the engine and the engine both the gas pedal and the gearshift in an HSD car merely send electrical to a control computer .

HSD is a refinement of the Toyota Hybrid System ( THS ) in the 1997–2003 Toyota Prius. As it is occasionally referred to as THS II . The name was in anticipation of its use in vehicles outside the brand.

When required to the transmission type of an HSD vehicle as in standard specification lists or for purposes), Toyota describes vehicles as having E-CVT ( Continuously Variable Transmission ).

Motors and DaimlerChrysler ‘s Hybrid System 2 is similar in it combines the power from a engine and two motors. To contrast ‘s Integrated Motor uses a more traditional ICE and where the flywheel is replaced an electric motor.

Theory of

high voltage unit of the HSD

HSD a normal geared transmission an electronic system. All car powertrains a driveshaft that turns the wheels of the car. Because an combustion engine delivers best only over a range of torque and speed the of the engine is usually attached to a gear train that the needed torque at the wheels to the that can be delivered by the engine.

HSD the gear box, alternator and motor with a pair of motor-generators . a computerized shunt to control them, a mechanical splitter that acts as a differential . and a battery pack serves as an energy reservoir. A is a transducer that converts to motion or vice-versa. The mechanical of the system allow the computer to mechanical power from the between three forms: torque at the wheels (under rotation speed), extra speed at the wheels (under torque), and electricity.

This the benefits of a continuously variable . except that the torque/speed uses electricity rather direct mechanical connection. A HSD car operate without the computer and motor-generators, though in principle it operate while missing the battery pack or the gasoline (but not both). In practice, HSD can be driven several miles out of gas . as an emergency measure to get to a gas station .

One of the motor-generators (MG2 in Toyota sometimes called MG-T for is mounted on the driveshaft, and thus torque into or out of the driveshaft: electricity into MG2 adds at the wheels. The engine end of the driveshaft has a differential ; one leg of this differential is to the gasoline engine and the other leg is to a second motor generator in Toyota manuals; sometimes for Speed). The differential ensures the rotation speed of the wheels is the sum of the speeds of the engine and MG1, so MG1 is to change the wheel (or engine)

In Prius models, the differential is an sun gear design, and the two motor and differential are all contained in a single that is bolted to the engine . couplings and sensors monitor speed of each shaft and the torque on the driveshaft, for feedback to the computer.

The drive works by electrical power between the two generators and the battery pack to out load on the gasoline engine. a power boost is available for of acceleration, the gasoline engine can be to match only the average on the car, rather than the load on the car: this fuel because smaller are more power efficient. during normal operation the engine can be operated at its ideal and torque level for power, or emissions, with the battery absorbing or supplying power as to balance the demand placed by the .

Phases of operation

Hybrid Drive

The HSD operates in distinct depending on speed and demanded Here are a few of them:

Engine . MG1 is fed negative voltage, so that it to drive the wheels backwards. The torque is canceled by a forward fed to MG2. Because the differential the speed of the wheels (zero) to be the sum of the of MG1 and the engine, the engine is forced forward motion.

Because motor generators are sized to the entire car, turning the does not stress the motors and the starter motor sound is not engine start is silent.

Low gear . When accelerating a stop in normal operation, the turns much more than the wheels, but does not as much torque as is needed. MG1 is rapidly backwards, and the computer electricity from MG1. The is shunted to MG2, adding at the driveshaft, so that the drive develops power at low speed and torque.

High gear . cruising at high speed, the turns more slowly the wheels, but develops more than is needed. The computer electricity from MG2, the torque available at the wheels. The is shunted to MG1, which the speed of the driveshaft.

Because the supplies mechanical energy to the system, conservation of energy is not the power that is shunted MG2 to MG1 is less than the total developed by the engine, and so power is to the wheels.

Reverse gear . is no reverse gear as in a conventional the computer feeds negative to MG2, applying negative to the wheels. Early models did not enough torque for some there have been of early Prius owners not able to back the car up steep in San Francisco . The problem has been in recent models. If the battery is the system can simultaneously run the engine and power from MG1, this will reduce reverse torque at the wheels.

operation . At slow speeds and torques the HSD can drive without the gasoline engine at all: is supplied only to MG2, MG1 to rotate freely (and decoupling the engine from the Provided that there is battery power, the car can be driven in silent mode for some even without gasoline.

gear . Most places automotive transmissions to have a gear that decouples the and transmission. The HSD neutral gear is by breaking the electrical connection to MG1 and MG2. Under this MG1 is free running and no torque can be to the wheels (MG1 rotates when the engine rotates

Regenerative braking . by drawing from MG2 and depositing it into the pack, the HSD can simulate normal braking while saving the for future boost. The Prius has a transmission setting labelled (for Brake), that the place of a conventional automatic ‘s ‘L’ setting for braking on hills. If the battery is the Prius switches to conventional braking . drawing power MG2 and shunting it to MG1 to drive the engine forward.

The regenerative brakes in a HSD system a significant amount of the normal load, so the conventional brakes on a are undersized compared to brakes on a car of similar mass.

Electric . The battery pack provides a of energy that allows the to match the demand on the engine to a optimal load curve, than operating at the torque and demanded by the driver and road. The manages the energy level in the battery, so as to have capacity to extra energy where or supply extra energy to engine power.

Battery . The HSD can charge its battery without the car, by running the engine and electrical power from The power gets shunted the battery, and no torque is supplied to the


The Toyota Prius has but not sport-car-like, acceleration but has extremely mileage for a mid sized four-door 45 mpg (US) is typical of brief jaunts; 55 mpg is not uncommon, especially for drives (which allow the to warm up fully). This is twice the fuel efficiency of a equipped four-door sedan a conventional power train. Not all of the efficiency of the Prius is due to the HSD system: the cycle engine itself was designed specifically to minimize drag with an offset to minimize piston drag the power stroke . and a unique system to prevent drag by manifold vacuum versus the Otto cycle in most

The Highlander Hybrid (also as the Kluger in some countries) superior performance compared to its version. The hybrid version from 0–60 in 7.2 seconds, almost a second off the conventional time. Net horsepower is 268 hp compared to the conventional 215 hp. Top speed for all Highlanders are to 112 mph. Typical fuel for the Highlander rates between 27 and 31

A conventional Highlander is rated by the EPA 19 city, 25 highway mpg.

motor company has licensed the HSD from Toyota, and manufactures a SUV . the Ford Escape . The four-cylinder Escape achieves good but not increases in mileage: 28–30 which is comparable to a conventional SUV such as the Honda CRV .

There have been in the press of hybrid power not living up to fuel efficiency This is due in part to the sensitivity of mileage to driving style. The boost depends on using the engine as efficiently as possible, requires:

extended drives . in winter: HSD cars such as the do not shut off the gasoline engine the oil temperature reaches a set point. drives do not allow the engine to up, burning extra fuel per traveled

moderate acceleration . hybrid cars can throttle or completely shut off the engine moderate, but not rapid, acceleration, are more sensitive than cars to driving style. acceleration forces the engine a high-power state while acceleration keeps the engine in a power, high efficiency (augmented by battery boost).

braking . Regenerative brakes the energy of braking, but cannot energy as fast as conventional Gradual braking recovers for re-use, boosting mileage; braking wastes the energy as just as for a conventional car

Most HSD have batteries that are for maximal boost during a acceleration from zero to the top of the vehicle; if there is more the battery can be completely exhausted, so this extra torque is not available. Then the system to just the power available the engine. This is a big difference in an early-model Prius can achieve 90 mph on a 6 degree upward slope, but about 2,000 feet of climb the battery is exhausted and the car can achieve 55–60 mph on the same (until the battery is recharged by under less demanding


The basic design of the Hybrid System / Hybrid Drive has not changed since its in the 1997 Japanese-market Toyota but there have been a of refinements.

The original Prius shrink-wrapped 1.2 volt D cells; all THS/HSD vehicles have custom 7.2 V battery modules in a carrier. There has been a gradual improvement in specific

The Toyota Hybrid System on the voltage of the battery pack — 276 and 288 V. The Hybrid Synergy Drive a DC–DC converter boosting the of the battery to 500 V or more. This smaller battery packs to be and more powerful motors.

Although not part of the HSD as such, all HSD from the 2004 Prius have been fitted an electric air-conditioning compressor, of the conventional engine-driven type. removes the need to continuously run the when cabin cooling is

Vehicles such as the Lexus added four-wheel drive by the addition of a third electric (MGR) on the rear axle. In system, the rear axle is electrically powered, and there is no link between the engine and the wheels. This also regenerative braking on the rear

Ford have developed a hybrid system, introduced in the Escape Hybrid .

Integrated Assist (commonly abbreviated as IMA ) is ‘s hybrid car technology. It an electric motor mounted the engine and transmission to act as a starter . engine balancer . and power In its first generation, IMA could not the car on electricity alone, but later of IMA (beginning with the 2006 year Civic Hybrid) are of powering the car entirely on electricity at low

It uses a high-output motor/generator captures electric energy deceleration via regenerative braking and that energy later to the vehicle. Honda’s hybrids have a conventional starter as a making it the only production system which can operate its high voltage electric disabled, using only its ICE a traditional vehicle; however the IMA also acts as the vehicle’s . eventually the 12 V accessory battery require an external charge.

To General Motors and DaimlerChrysler Advanced Hybrid System 2 and ‘s Hybrid Synergy are similar to each other in they both combine the from a single engine and a of electric motors via one or more . or power split device as it is sometimes refered to.


When GM and DaimlerChrysler engineers how similar their hybrid was, they decided to forces and share technology. parallels the work of Ford Company and Toyota . who also developed similar hybrid and shared patents. The GM/DaimlerChrysler was announced on December 13 . 2004 Dieter Zetsche of DaimlerChrysler Rick Wagoner of GM on stage a prototype.

The agreement was not signed the following August, however.

GM is responsible for development of rear- and drive truck and front drive car systems while is focused on a rear wheel luxury car application.

It was announced on September 7 . 2005 BMW would also join the likely using archrival rear wheel drive


The group touts its as two-mode to differentiate it from the . Honda . and Ford single-mode The two modes of operation are:

At low the vehicle can move with the electric motors, the internal engine, or both, making it a full hybrid. All accessories still remain functioning on power, and the engine can restart if needed.

At higher speeds or loads, the internal combustion always runs, and the system advanced technologies like Fuel Management and late valve closing to optimize efficiency.

Despite the two-mode pitch, however, it is the packaging of the which is unique. A special transmission incorporates two 60 kW (80 hp) DC electric two planetary gearsets . and two selectively-engaging clutches . This system the output of the electric motors to the way in which a conventional transmission the power of an internal combustion It also transfers more of the torque to the wheels, making the more efficient even the electric motors in use.

the whole system fits the space of, and indeed appears as, a 4L60-E automatic transmission.

A 300 battery pack is housed in the vehicle to store energy. applications will also 120 volt AC power outlets as on the Chevrolet Silverado hybrid.

The system was first used in the Motors transit buses in 2004 . It was to be introduced for the 2007 year in the full-sized GM SUVs, but were delayed for one year for reasons.

It is likely that Motors Hydramatic automatic unit will manufacture the production versions of the two-mode as it has already been announced they will be used in SUVs.

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