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Maybach Electric Cars

Automobile

World map of passenger per 1000 people

An automobile . . motor car or car is a wheeled motor used for transporting passengers. also carries its own engine or Most definitions of the term that automobiles are designed to run on roads, to have seating for one to people, to typically have wheels, and to be constructed principally for the of people rather than [ 3 ]

The year 1886 is regarded the of birth of the modern automobile with the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. by inventor Karl Benz. wagons soon replaced carriages. especially after became affordable for many when the Ford Model T was in 1908.

The term motorcar has also been used in the of electrified rail systems to a car which functions as a small but also provides space for and baggage. These locomotive were often used on routes by both interurban and railroad systems. [ 4 ]

It was estimated in that the number of automobiles had to over 1 billion vehicles, up the 500 million of 1986. [ 5 ] The numbers are rapidly, especially in China. and other NICs. [ 6 ]

Contents

The word automobile comes, via the automobile from the Ancient word αὐτός ( autós . and the Latin mobilis (movable); a vehicle that moves The loanword was first adopted in by The New York Times in 1899. [ 7 ] The name car is believed to originate the Latin word carrus or (wheeled vehicle), or the Middle word carre (cart ) Old North French ), in turn are said to have originated the Gaulish word karros (a Chariot ). [ 8 ] [ 9 ]

History

The first steam-powered vehicle was designed — and likely built — by Ferdinand a Flemish member of a Jesuit in China around 1672. It was a 65 scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, was unable to carry a driver or a [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] It is not known if Verbiest’s model was built. [ 11 ]

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or in about 1769; he created a tricycle. [ 13 ] He also constructed two tractors for the French Army, one of is preserved in the French National of Arts and Crafts. [ 14 ] His inventions however handicapped by problems water supply and maintaining pressure. [ 14 ] In 1801, Richard built and demonstrated his Puffing road locomotive, believed by to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered vehicle. It was unable to maintain steam pressure for long and was of little practical use.

The of external combustion engines is as part of the history of the automobile. but treated separately from the of true automobiles. A variety of road vehicles were during the first part of the century, including steam steam buses. phaetons. and rollers. Sentiment against led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865.

In Nicéphore Niépce and his brother probably created the world’s internal combustion engine they called a Pyréolophore. but chose to install it in a boat on the Saone in France. [ 15 ] Coincidentally, in the Swiss inventor François de Rivaz designed his own ‘de internal combustion engine and used it to develop the world’s vehicle to be powered by such an The Niépces’ Pyréolophore was fuelled by a of Lycopodium powder (dried of the Lycopodium plant), finely coal dust and resin were mixed with whereas de Rivaz used a of hydrogen and oxygen. [ 15 ] Neither was very successful, as was the case others, such as Samuel Samuel Morey. and Etienne with his hippomobile. who each vehicles (usually adapted or carts) powered by internal engines. [ 16 ]

In November 1881, French Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a three-wheeled automobile powered by at the International Exposition of Electricity, [ 17 ]

Karl Benz. the inventor of the automobile

Bertha Benz. the long distance automobile in the world

In 1896, Benz and patented the first internal-combustion engine. called boxermotor . the last years of the nineteenth Benz was the largest automobile in the world with 572 units in 1899 and, because of its Benz Cie. became a company .

The first motor car in Europe and one of the first factory-made in the world, was produced by Czech Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau (later to Tatra ) in 1897, the Präsident

Daimler and Maybach founded Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in in 1890, and sold their automobile in 1892 under the name, Daimler . It was a horse-drawn built by another manufacturer, they retrofitted with an of their design. By 1895 30 vehicles had been built by and Maybach, either at the Daimler or in the Hotel Hermann, where set up shop after disputes their backers. Benz, and the Daimler team seem to been unaware of each early work.

They worked together; by the time of the of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach no longer part of DMG.

died in 1900 and later year, Maybach designed an named Daimler-Mercedes . that was in a specially ordered model to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. was a production of a small number of for Jellinek to race and market in his Two years later, in 1902, a new DMG automobile was produced and the model was Mercedes after the Maybach which generated 35 hp. Maybach DMG shortly thereafter and opened a of his own.

Rights to the Daimler brand were sold to other

Karl Benz proposed between DMG and Benz Cie. economic conditions began to in Germany following the First War. but the directors of DMG refused to it initially. Negotiations between the two resumed several years when these conditions and, in 1924 they an Agreement of Mutual Interest . until the year 2000. enterprises standardized design, purchasing, and sales and they or marketed their automobile jointly, although keeping respective brands.

On 28 June Benz Cie. and DMG finally as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its Mercedes Benz . as a brand the most important model of the DMG the Maybach design later to as the 1902 Mercedes-35 hp . along the Benz name. Karl remained a member of the board of of Daimler-Benz until his death in and at times, his two sons participated in the of the company as well.

In 1890, Levassor and Armand Peugeot of began producing vehicles Daimler engines, and so laid the of the automobile industry in France .

The design for an American automobile a gasoline internal combustion was made in 1877 by George of Rochester, New York. Selden for a patent for an automobile in 1879, but the application expired because the was never built. After a of sixteen years and a series of to his application, on 5 November 1895, was granted a United States ( U.S. Patent 549,160 ) for a automobile engine, which more than encouraged. of automobiles in the United States.

His was challenged by Henry Ford and and overturned in 1911.

In 1893, the running, gasoline-powered American car was and road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Massachusetts. The first public run of the Motor Wagon took on 21 September 1893, on Taylor in Metro Center Springfield. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] The Automobile Company. subsidiary of a wagon and coach manufacturer, to build cars in 1897 [ 20 ] and commenced sales of electric in 1902 and gasoline vehicles in [ 21 ]

In Britain, there had been attempts to build steam with varying degrees of with Thomas Rickett attempting a production run in 1860. [ 22 ] from Malvern is recognized by the Car Club of Great Britain as made the first petrol-powered car in the in 1894 [ 23 ] followed by Frederick Lanchester in 1895, but these both one-offs. [ 23 ] The first vehicles in Great Britain from the Daimler Company. a founded by Harry J. Lawson in after purchasing the right to use the of the engines. Lawson’s company its first automobiles in 1897, and bore the name Daimler . [ 23 ]

In German engineer Rudolf was granted a patent for a New Rational Engine. In 1897, he built the Diesel Engine. [ 16 ] Steam-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for with gasoline internal engines achieving dominance in the

Maybach Electric Cars

Although various pistonless engine designs have to compete with the conventional and crankshaft design, only ‘s version of the Wankel has had more than very success.

Mass production

of Henry Ford (ca.

Ford’s complex safety assigning each worker to a location instead of allowing to roam about—dramatically reduced the of injury. The combination of high and high efficiency is called , and was copied by most major The efficiency gains from the line also coincided the economic rise of the United

The assembly line forced to work at a certain pace very repetitive motions led to more output per worker other countries were less productive methods.

of automotive technology was rapid, due in to the hundreds of small manufacturers to gain the world’s attention. Key included electric ignition and the self-starter (both by Charles for the Cadillac Motor Company in independent suspension. and four-wheel

Ford Model T. 1927, as the first affordable American

Since the 1920s, nearly all have been mass-produced to market needs, so marketing often have heavily automobile design. It was Alfred P. who established the idea of different of cars produced by one company, so could move up as their improved.

Reflecting the rapid of change, makes shared with one another so larger volume resulted in lower for each price range. For in the 1930s, LaSalles. sold by used cheaper mechanical made by Oldsmobile ; in the 1950s, shared hood, doors, and windows with Pontiac ; by the corporate powertrains and shared (with interchangeable brakes. and other parts) were Even so, only major could afford high and even companies with of production, such as Apperson.

Dorris. Haynes. or Premier. not manage: of some two hundred car makers in existence in 1920, 43 survived in 1930, and with the Depression. by 1940, only 17 of were left. [ 25 ]

In Europe the same would happen. set up its production line at Cowley in and soon outsold Ford, beginning in 1923 to follow practise of vertical integration. Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as as competitors, such as Wolseley. in Morris had 41% of total British car Most British small-car from Abbey to Xtra had under.

Citroen did the same in coming to cars in 1919; them and other cheap in reply such as Renault 10CV and Peugeot ‘s they produced 550,000 in 1925, and Mors. Hurtu. and could not compete. [ 25 ] Germany’s mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS (Tree Frog), came off the at Russelsheim in 1924, soon Opel the top car builder in Germany, 37.5% of the market. [ 25 ]

Weight

The weight of a car influences consumption and performance, with weight resulting in increased consumption and decreased performance. to a research conducted by Julian of the University of Cambridge. global use could be heavily reduced by lighter cars, and an average of 500 kg has been said to be well [ 26 ]

In some competitions such as the Eco Marathon. average car weights of 45 kg also been achieved. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] cars are only single-seaters falling within the definition of a although 4-seater cars are common), but it nevertheless demonstrates the degree in which car weights can be reduced, and the subsequent lower use (i.e. up to a fuel use of 2560 [ 29 ]

Seating and body style


cars are designed to carry occupants, often with or five seats. Larger can often carry six, or more occupants depending in the arrange of seats. Sports are often designed with two seats, and very occasionally seats. The differing needs for capacity and their luggage has in a large variety of body to suit personal requirements as the sedan/saloon. hatchback. station /estate and Multi-Purpose Vehicle .

Maybach Electric Cars

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