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Maybach Electric Cars

Automobile

World map of passenger cars per 1000 people

An automobile . autocar . motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers. which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. [ 3 ]

The year 1886 is regarded the year of birth of the modern automobile — with the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. by German inventor Karl Benz. Motorized wagons soon replaced animal-drafted carriages. especially after automobiles became affordable for many people when the Ford Model T was introduced in 1908.

The term motorcar has formerly also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems. [ 4 ]

It was estimated in 2010 that the number of automobiles had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. [ 5 ] The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China. India and other NICs. [ 6 ]

Contents

Etymology

The word automobile comes, via the French automobile from the Ancient Greek word αὐτός ( autós . self) and the Latin mobilis (movable); meaning a vehicle that moves itself. The loanword was first adopted in English by The New York Times in 1899. [ 7 ] The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum (wheeled vehicle), or the Middle English word carre (cart ) (from Old North French ), in turn these are said to have originated from the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic Chariot ). [ 8 ] [ 9 ]

History

The first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and most likely built — by Ferdinand Verbiest. a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65 cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] It is not known if Verbiest’s model was ever built. [ 11 ]

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769; he created a steam-powered tricycle. [ 13 ] He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. [ 14 ] His inventions were however handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. [ 14 ] In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and was of little practical use.

The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the automobile. but often treated separately from the development of true automobiles. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars. steam buses. phaetons. and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865.

In 1807 Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude probably created the world’s first internal combustion engine which they called a Pyréolophore. but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. [ 15 ] Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own ‘de Rivaz internal combustion engine ‘ and used it to develop the world’s first vehicle to be powered by such an engine. The Niépces’ Pyréolophore was fuelled by a mixture of Lycopodium powder (dried spores of the Lycopodium plant), finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil, whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. [ 15 ] Neither design was very successful, as was the case with others, such as Samuel Brown. Samuel Morey. and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile. who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by internal combustion engines. [ 16 ]

In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile powered by electricity at the International Exposition of Electricity, Paris. [ 17 ]

Karl Benz. the inventor of the modern automobile

Bertha Benz. the first long distance automobile driver in the world

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine. called boxermotor . During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and, because of its size, Benz Cie. became a joint-stock company .

The first motor car in central Europe and one of the first factory-made cars in the world, was produced by Czech company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau (later renamed to Tatra ) in 1897, the Präsident automobil.

Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890, and sold their first automobile in 1892 under the brand name, Daimler . It was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after disputes with their backers. Benz, Maybach and the Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other’s early work.

They never worked together; by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG.

Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes . that was placed in a specially ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own.

Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.

Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War. but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest . valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly, although keeping their respective brands.

On 28 June 1926, Benz Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz . as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35 hp . along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his … in 1929, and at times, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.

In 1890, Émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France .

The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York. Selden applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on 5 November 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent ( U.S. Patent 549,160 ) for a two-… automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged. development of automobiles in the United States.

His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.

In 1893, the first running, gasoline-powered American car was built and road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Springfield, Massachusetts. The first public run of the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on 21 September 1893, on Taylor Street in Metro Center Springfield. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] The Studebaker Automobile Company. subsidiary of a long-established wagon and coach manufacturer, started to build cars in 1897 [ 20 ] :p.66 and commenced sales of electric vehicles in 1902 and gasoline vehicles in 1904. [ 21 ]

In Britain, there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success, with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. [ 22 ] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894 [ 23 ] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895, but these were both one-offs. [ 23 ] The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Company. a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896, after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson’s company made its first automobiles in 1897, and they bore the name Daimler . [ 23 ]

In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a New Rational Combustion Engine. In 1897, he built the first Diesel Engine. [ 16 ] Steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s.

Maybach Electric Cars

Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda ‘s version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success.

Mass production

Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. 1919)

Ford’s complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called Fordism , and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States.

The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods.

Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world’s attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering. for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910–1911), independent suspension. and four-wheel brakes.

Ford Model T. 1927, regarded as the first affordable American automobile

Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans often have heavily influenced automobile design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, so buyers could move up as their fortunes improved.

Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930s, LaSalles. sold by Cadillac. used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile ; in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac ; by the 1990s, corporate powertrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes. suspension, and other parts) were common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson. Cole.

Dorris. Haynes. or Premier. could not manage: of some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the Great Depression. by 1940, only 17 of those were left. [ 25 ]

In Europe much the same would happen. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford’s practise of vertical integration. buying Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley (gearboxes), and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as well as competitors, such as Wolseley. in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey to Xtra had gone under.

Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919; between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renault ‘s 10CV and Peugeot ‘s 5CV. they produced 550,000 cars in 1925, and Mors. Hurtu. and others could not compete. [ 25 ] Germany’s first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog), came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with 37.5% of the market. [ 25 ]

Weight

The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance, with more weight resulting in increased fuel consumption and decreased performance. According to a research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge. global energy use could be heavily reduced by using lighter cars, and an average weight of 500 kg has been said to be well achievable. [ 26 ]

In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon. average car weights of 45 kg have also been achieved. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] These cars are only single-seaters (still falling within the definition of a car, although 4-seater cars are more common), but it nevertheless demonstrates the huge degree in which car weights can still be reduced, and the subsequent lower fuel use (i.e. up to a fuel use of 2560 km/l). [ 29 ]

Seating and body style


Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants, often with four or five seats. Larger cars can often carry six, seven or more occupants depending in the internal arrange of seats. Sports cars are often designed with only two seats, and very occasionally three seats. The differing needs for passenger capacity and their luggage has resulted in a large variety of body styles to suit personal requirements such as the sedan/saloon. hatchback. station wagon /estate and Multi-Purpose Vehicle /Minivan .

Maybach Electric Cars

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