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Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

How much does a S180 Schwinn battery charger cost?

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Electric vehicle Details

An electric vehicle ( EV ), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle . uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Three main types of electric vehicles exist, those that are directly powered from an external power station, those that are powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source, and those that are powered by an on-board electrical generator, such as an internal combustion engine (a hybrid electric vehicle) or a hydrogen fuel cell. EVs include electric cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric aeroplanes, electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric spacecraft.

Diesel submarines operating on battery power are, for the duration of the battery run, electric submarines, and some of the lighter UAVs are electrically-powered. Proposals exist for electric tanks. EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The internal combustion engine (ICE) is the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.

During the last few decades, environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure, along with the peak oil, has led to renewed interest in an electric transportation infrastructure. EVs differ from fossil fuel-powered vehicles in that the electricity they consume can be generated from a wide range of sources, including fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as tidal power, solar power, and wind power or any combination of those. Currently, though, there are more than 400 coal power plants in the U.S. alone, meaning that EV operation in regions serviced by these plants are effectively burning coal for locomotion. However it is generated, this energy is then transmitted to the vehicle through use of overhead lines, which necessarily involves transmission loss, wireless energy transfer such as inductive charging, or a direct connection through an electrical cable.

The electricity may then be stored on board the vehicle using a battery, flywheel, or supercapacitors. Vehicles making use of engines working on the principle of combustion can usually only derive their energy from a single or a few sources, usually non-renewable fossil fuels. A key advantage of electric or hybrid EVs is regenerative braking and suspension; their ability to recover energy normally lost during braking as electricity to be restored to the on-board battery or to the electrical grid. Electric motive power started with a small drifter operated by a miniature electric motor, built by Thomas Davenport in 1835.

In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that attained a speed of four miles per hour (6 km/h). In England a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells. By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, with commercial electric automobiles having the majority of the market. Over time their general-purpose commercial use reduced to specialist roles, as platform trucks, forklift trucks, ambulances, tow tractors and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float; for most of the 20th century, the UK was the world’s largest user of electric road vehicles.

Electrified trains were used for coal transport, as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines. Switzerland’s lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries — the nickel-iron battery — was favored by Edison for use in electric cars.

EVs were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s. They were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia Electric, Detroit Electric, and others, and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. In fact, in 1900, 28 percent of the cars on the road in the USA were electric.

EVs were so popular that even President Woodrow Wilson and his secret service agents toured Washington DC in their Milburn Electrics, which covered 60–70 miles per charge. In the 1930s, National City Lines, which was a partnership of General Motors, Firestone, and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses. The partnership was convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of equipment and supplies to their subsidiary companies conspiracy, but were acquitted of conspiring to monopolize the provision of transportation services. Electric tram line technologies could be used to recharge BEVs and PHEVs on the highway while the user drives, providing virtually unrestricted driving range. The technology is old and well established (see : Conduit current collection, Nickel-iron battery).

The infrastructure has not been built. In January 1990, General Motors’ President introduced its EV concept two-seater, the Impact, at the Los Angeles Auto Show. That September, the California Air Resources Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases starting in 1998. From 1996 to 1998 GM produced 1117 EV1s, 800 of which were made available through three-year leases. Chrysler, Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan and Toyota also produced limited numbers of EVs for California drivers.

In 2003, upon the expiration of GM’s EV1 leases, GM crushed them. The crushing has variously been attributed to 1) the auto industry’s successful federal court challenge to California’s zero-emissions vehicle mandate, 2) a federal regulation requiring GM to produce and maintain spare parts for the few thousands EV1s and 3) the success of the oil and auto industries’ media campaign to reduce public acceptance of EVs. A movie made on the subject in 2005-2006 was titled Who Killed the Electric Car? and released theatrically by Sony Pictures Classics in 2006. The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers, oil industry, the U.S. government, batteries, hydrogen vehicles, and consumers, and each of their roles in limiting the deployment and adoption of this technology. Ford released a number of their Ford Ecostar delivery vans into the market.

Honda, Nissan and Toyota also repossessed and crushed most of their EVs, which, like the GM EV1s, had been available only by closed-end lease. After public protests, Toyota sold 200 of its RAV EVs to eager buyers; they now sell, five years later, at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price. This lesson did not go unlearned; BMW of Canada sold off a number of Mini EV’s when their Canadian testing ended.

The production of the Citroën Berlingo Electrique stopped in September 2005.

Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles Details

Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles have been established by several national and local governments around the world as a financial incentive for consumers to purchase a plug-in electric vehicle. The amount of these incentives usually depends on battery size and the vehicle all-electric range, and some countries extend the benefits to fuel cell vehicles, and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Ontario established a rebate between (4 kWh battery) to (17 kWh or more) (

to ), depending on battery size, for purchasing or leasing a new plug-in electric vehicle after July 1, 2010. The rebates are available to the first 10,000 applicants who qualify. The province also introduced green-coloured licence plates for exclusive use of plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles.

These unique green vehicle plates allow PEV owners to travel in the province’s carpool lanes until 2015 regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. Also, owners are eligible to use recharging stations at GO Transit and other provincially-owned parking lots. As of July 2013[update], according to the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, eligible plug-in electric vehicles in the province are the Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla Model S, Smart electric drive, Fisker Karma, Ford Focus Electric, Chevrolet Volt, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, and Azure Transit Connect Electric. Quebec began offering rebates of up to () beginning on January 1, 2012, for the purchase of new plug-in electric vehicles equipped with a minimum of 4 kWh battery, and new hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for a rebate. All-electric vehicles with high-capacity battery packs are eligible for the full rebate, and incentives are reduced for low-range electric cars and plug-in hybrids.

Quebec’s government earmarked () for the program, and the maximum rebate amount is slowly reduced every year until a maximum of in 2015, but the rebates will continue until the fund runs out. There is also a ceiling for the maximum number of eligible vehicles: 10,000 for all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, and 5,000 for conventional hybrids. The Government of British Columbia announced the LiveSmart BC program which will start offering rebates of up to per eligible clean energy vehicle commencing on December 1, 2011. The incentives will be available until March 31, 2013 or until available funding is depleted, whichever comes first.

Available funds are enough to provide incentives for approximately 1,370 vehicles. Battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and plug-in hybrids with battery capacity of 15.0 kWh and above are eligible for a incentive. Also effective December 1, 2011, rebates of up to per qualifying electric vehicle charging equipment will be available to B.C. residents who have purchased a clean energy vehicle. On June 1, 2010, the Chinese government announced a trial program to provide incentives up to 60,000 yuan (

in June 2011) for private purchase of new battery electric vehicles and 50,000 yuan (

in June 2011) for plug-in hybrids in five cities. The cities participating in the pilot program are Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Hefei and Changchun. The subsidies are paid directly to automakers rather than consumers, but the government expects that vehicle prices will be reduced accordingly.

The amount of the subsidy will be reduced once 50,000 units are sold. In addition to the subsidy, the Chinese government is planning to introduce, beginning on January 1, 2012, an exemption from annual taxes for pure electric, fuel-cell, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles will be eligible for a 50% reduction only. As of April 2011, 15 of the 27 European Union member states provide tax incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles, which includes all Western European countries plus the Czech Republic and Romania.

Also 17 countries levy carbon dioxide related taxes on passenger cars as a disincentive. The incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of PEVs, hybrid vehicles, and some alternative fuel vehicles. Electric vehicles are exempt from the fuel consumption tax, levied upon the first registration, and from the monthly vehicle tax.

In addition to tax breaks, hybrid vehicles and other alternative fuel vehicles benefit from a fuel consumption tax that pays bonuses to passenger cars with low carbon dioxide output. Alternative fuel vehicles, including hybrids, qualify for as much as €800 (around ) in annual bonuses. This bonus is valid from 1 July 2008 until 31 August 2012. The Belgian government established a personal income tax deduction of 30% of the purchase price including VAT of a new electric vehicle, up to €9,190. Plug-in hybrids are not eligible.

This tax incentive will end on December 31, 2012. There is also available a tax deduction up to 40% for investments in external recharging stations publicly accessible, to a maximum of €250. The Wallonia regional government has an additional €4,500 eco-bonus for cars registered before December 31, 2011. Electric, hybrid and other alternative fuel vehicles used for business purposes are exempt from the road tax.

Electric vehicles weighing under 2,000 kg are exempt from the new car registration tax since 1985, but available models were so limited that by 2009 only 497 EVs are registered in the entire country. The registration tax in Denmark is based on the vehicle’s purchase price of the vehicle, and is set at 105% if the vehicle price is up to DKK79,000 (around ) and 180% if the price is above DKK79,000. The government also grants free parking in downtown Copenhagen for EVS.

This exemption does not apply to hybrid electric vehicles. Estonia has allocated a total of in grants towards the purchase of battery electric vehicles. Each vehicle is subsidised with up to. Until July 31, 2012, a premium, under a Bonus-Malus system, was granted in France up to €5,000 for the purchase of new cars with emissions 2 CO of 60 g/km or less which benefited all-electric cars and any plug-in hybrid with such low emissions.

Vehicles emitting up to 125 g/km or less, such as hybrids and natural gas vehicles, were granted up to €2,000. The incentive could not exceed 20% of the sales price including VAT, increased with the cost of the battery if it is rented. Effective on August 1, 2012, the government increased the bonus for electric cars up to €7,000 but capped at 30% of the vehicle price including VAT.

The price includes any battery leasing charges, and therefore, electric cars which need a battery leasing contract also are eligible for the bonus. An electric car sold for €23 333 including VAT is eligible for the maximum bonus of 7000 euros. The emission level for the maximum bonus was raised to 20 gr/km or less. Cars with emission levels between 20 to 50 gr/km are eligible to a bonus of up to €5,000, and between 50 to 60 gr/km are eligible to a bonus of up to €4,500.

At this limit, the bonus drops to €550. Electric vehicles and plug-ins are exempt from the annual circulation tax for a period of five years from the date of their first registration. In May 2010 the German government announced that it will not provide subsidies to the sales of electric cars but instead it will only fund research in the area of electric mobility. The private use of a company car is treated as taxable income in Germany and measured at a flat monthly rate of 1% of the vehicle’s gross list price.


So plug-in electric cars have been at a disadvantage since their price tag can be as much as double that of a car using a conventional internal combustion engine due to the high cost of the battery. In June 2013 German legislators approved a law that ends the tax disadvantage for corporate plug-in electric cars. The law, backdated to 1 January 2013, allows private users to offset the list price with €500 per unit of battery size, expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh).

The maximum offset was set at €10,000 corresponding to a 20 kWh battery. the amount one can offset will sink annually by €50 per kilowatt hour. All electric and hybrid vehicles are exempt from the registration tax. Ireland offers a government grant of €5,000 for the purchase of a new electric cars. Electric and hybrid vehicles had a reduction of up to €2,500 off the registration tax between July 2008 and December 2010. Electric vehicles are exempt from the annual circulation tax or ownership tax for five years from the date of their first registration.

Thereafter, EVs benefit from a 75% reduction of the tax rate applied to equivalent gasoline-powered vehicles. Buyers of electric vehicles and other vehicles emitting 60 g/km or less of carbon dioxide are eligible to receive a premium of €3,000 (around ) until 31 December 2011. In order to qualify for the rebate, the owner must have concluded an agreement to buy electricity from renewable energy. Buyers of electric vehicles and plug in hybrids are eligible to receive €9,000 (around ) from the Monegasque Government.

In addition vehicles owners are allowed to park free at any public parking facility. There are no direct purchase subsidies for electric vehicles, but other existing incentives include total exemption of the registration fee and road taxes, which result in savings of approximately €5,324 for private car owners over four years and €19,000 for corporate owners over five years. Other vehicles including hybrid vehicles are also exempt from these taxes if they emit less than 95 g/km for diesel-powered vehicles, or less than 110 g/km for gasoline-powered vehicles. Buyers will also have access to parking spaces in Amsterdam reserved for battery electric vehicles, so they will avoid the current wait for a parking place in Amsterdam, which can reach up to 10 years in some parts of the city.

All-electric cars are exempt in Norway from all non-recurring vehicle fees, including sales tax. Electric vehicles are also exempt from the annual road tax, all public parking fees, and toll payments, as well as being able to use bus lanes. These incentives are in effect until 2018 or until the 50,000 EV target is achieved. Until June 2013, plug-in hybrids have not been eligible for these benefits.

Because the Norwegian tax system levies higher taxes to heavier vehicles, plug-in hybrids are more expensive than similar conventional cars due to the extra weight of the battery pack and its additional electric components. Beginning on 1 July 2013, the existing weight allowance for conventional hybrids and plug-in hybrids of 10% will be increased to 15% for PHEVs. According to a study by an analyst of Statistics Norway, the tax exemptions on the purchase of an electric car are worth almost in comparison to the fully taxed price of a regular internal combustion engine car, which is equivalent to a year over a car’s lifetime (8 years). The value of the toll exemption for driving into Oslo are worth per year, the free parking is worth per year, and electric cars avoid other charges worth a year.

Without adding value to the benefit of driving in bus lanes, the annual benefit of owning an electric car in Oslo is estimated at per car, per year. The analysis used a Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid as the benchmark vehicle. The Norwegian project Grønn bil (Green Car) disputed these figures because they consider the analysis is based on unrealistic assumptions. The group argues that the analysis used a very short total vehicle lifespan of 7.8 years, while Norway’s’ average is closer to 18 years; it is very unlikely that a vehicle can be parked in Oslo between 1,875 hours and 3,000 hours per year to save the estimated considering the existing time limits for parking; and the typical EV owner drives around15,000 km (9,300 mi) per year, not the 6,500 km (4,000 mi) implicit in the analysis. Using what they consider more realistic assumptions, Grønn bil estimates that the annual benefit of owning an electric car in Oslo is estimated at per car, per year, 40% of Holtsmark’s estimation.

They also found that the cost per tonne of CO2 emissions reduced is. not the estimated by Holtsmark. Portugal established a government subsidy of €5,000 for the first 5,000 new electric cars sold in the country. In addition, there is in place a €1,500 incentive if the consumer turn in a used car as part of the down payment for the new electric car.

Electric cars are also exempt from the registration tax. Romania offers a government grant of up to 25% of the price (or max. €5,000) for the purchase of a new electric car. Furthermore, through the cash-for-clunkers program (scrappage program), those who wish to purchase an electric car will receive six vouchers of over €5,000 (as of 2011) in return for their used car.

In May 2011 the Spanish government approved a €72 million () fund for year 2011 to promote electric vehicles. The incentives include direct subsidies for the acquisition of new electric cars for up to 25% of the purchase price, before tax, to a maximum of €6,000 per vehicle (US$8,600), and 25% of the gross purchase price of other electric vehicles such as buses and vans, with a maximum of €15,000 or €30,000, depending on the range and type of vehicle. Several regional government grant incentives for the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles including electric and hybrid vehicles.

In Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Castilla y León electric vehicles are eligible to a €6,000 tax incentive and hybrids to €2,000. In September 2011 the Swedish government approved a 200 million kr program, effective starting in January 2012, that will provide subsidies for the purchase of electric cars and other super green cars with ultra-low carbon emissions (below 50 grams of carbon dioxide per km). There is also an exemption from the annual circulation tax for the first five years from the date of their first registration that benefits owners of electric vehicles with an energy consumption of 37 kWh per 100 km or less, and hybrid vehicles with CO 2 emissions of 120 g/km or less.

In addition, for both electric and hybrid vehicles, the taxable value of the car for the purposes of calculating the benefit in kind of a company car under personal income tax is reduced by 40% compared with the corresponding or comparable gasoline or diesel-powered car. The reduction of the taxable value has a cap of 16,000 kr per year. The Plug-in Car Grant started on 1 January 2011 and is available across the U.K.

The programme reduces the up-front cost of eligible cars by providing a 25% grant towards the cost of new plug-in cars capped at (). Both private and business fleet buyers are eligible for this grant which is received at the point of purchase. The subsidy programme is managed in a similar way to the grant made as part of the 2009 Car Scrappage Scheme, allowing consumers to buy an eligible car discounted at the point of purchase with the subsidy claimed back by the manufacturer afterwards.

The scheme was first announced in January 2009 by the Labour Government. The coalition government, led by David Cameron, took office in May 2010 and confirmed their support of the grant on 28 July 2010. This confirmed that million would be available for the first 15 months of the scheme, with the 2011 Spending Review confirming funding for the programme for the lifetime of the Parliament of around million. Vehicles eligible for the subsidy must meet the following criteria: As of December 2012[update], the following cars are eligible for the grant: Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Peugeot iOn, Citroën C-Zero, Smart electric drive, Nissan Leaf, Vauxhall Ampera, Chevrolet Volt, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Renault Fluence Z.E. and the Mia electric. The Tesla Roadster is not included on the government’s plug-in electric car grant list of eligible vehicles.

Tesla stated that the company applied for the scheme, but has not completed its application. As of December 2012[update], 3,021 claims have been made through the Plug-In Car Grant scheme since January 2011, out of 3,293 that were registered in the UK and eligible to the benefit. A total of 812 eligible PEVs were registered during the first four months of 2013, bringing the total to 4,095 eligible cars registered since 2011. The Plug-In Car Grant was extended to include vans since February 2012.

Van buyers can receive 20% — up to £8000 — off the cost of a plug-in van. To be eligible for the scheme, vans have to meet performance criteria to ensure safety, range, and ultra-low tailpipe emissions. Consumers, both business and private can receive the discount at the point of purchase.

The eligibility criteria are: or extra evidence of battery performance to show reasonable performance after 3 years of use As of December 2012[update], a total of 215 claims have been made through the Plug-in Van Grant scheme, and the following vans are eligible for the grant: BD Otomotiv Veicoli eTrafic, Mercedes-Benz Vito E-Cell, Faam Ecomile, Faam Jolly 2000, Mia U, Renault Kangoo Z.E. and Smith Electric Edison. The Government is supporting the ‘Plugged-In Places’ programme to install vehicle recharging points across the UK. The scheme offers match-funding to consortia of businesses and public sector partners to support the installation of electric vehicle recharging infrastructure in lead places across the UK. There are eight Plugged-In Places: East of England; Greater Manchester; London; Midlands; Milton Keynes; North East; Northern Ireland; and Scotland.

The Government also published an Infrastructure Strategy in June 2011. All-electric vehicles (BEVs) and eligible plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) qualify for a 100% discount of the London congestion charge. As of April 2013[update], approved PHEVs include the Chevrolet Volt, Vauxhall Ampera and Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. The current Greener Vehicle Discount will end starting in July 2013. Instead, a new Ultra Low Emission Discount scheme would be introduced with more stringent emission standards that would limit the free access to the congestion charge zone to electric cars, some hybrids, and any car or van that emit 75g/km or less of CO 2 and meet the Euro 5 emission standards for air quality.

The measure is designed to limit the growing number of diesel vehicles on London’s roads. Mayor Boris Johnson approved the new scheme in April 2013. The current owners of vehicles registered for the Greener Vehicle Discount will be granted a three-year sunset period (until June 2016) before they have to pay the full congestion charge.

The Central Government, through the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), provides a subsidy of 20% on the ex-factory price or, whichever is less, typically amounting to –. The Government of NCT – Delhi provides a 15% subsidy on the purchase of the Reva car in New Delhi. This subsidy ended on 31 March 2012. Exemptions: The Japanese government introduced the first electric vehicle incentive program in 1996, and it was integrated in 1998 with the Clean Energy Vehicles Introduction Project, which provided subsidies and tax discounts for the purchase of electric, natural gas, methanol and hybrid electric vehicles. The project provided a purchase subsidy of up to 50% the incremental costs of a clean energy vehicle as compared with the price of a conventional engine vehicle. This program was extended until 2003.

In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure that went into effect on June 19, 2009, but retroactive to April 10, 2009. The program established tax deductions and exemptions for environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles, according to a set of stipulated environmental performance criteria, and the requirements are applied equally to both foreign and domestically produced vehicles. The program provides purchasing subsidies for two type of cases, consumers purchasing a new passenger car without trade-in (non-replacement program), and for those consumers buying a new car trading an used car registered 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage program). New next generation vehicles, including electric and fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrids, hybrid electric vehicles, clean diesel and natural gas vehicles are exempted from both the acquisition tax and the tonnage tax.

Other fuel efficient and low emission passenger cars, mini cars, and heavy-duty vehicles have a tax reduction that vary between 50 to 75% depending on the compliance of the new vehicle as compared to 2010 fuel efficiency standards and their improvement with respect to 2005 emissions standards. Acquisition taxes on used vehicles will be reduced by 1.6% to 2.7%, or between 150,000 yen (

US$1,600) and 300,000 yen (

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

US$3,200). Electric and fuel cell vehicles have a 2.7% reduction while plug-in hybrids have a 2.4% reduction. These incentives are in effect from April 1, 2009 until March 31, 2012 for the acquisition tax which is paid once at the time of purchase.

The tonnage tax reductions are in effect from April 1, 2009 until April 30, 2012 and the incentive is applicable once, at the time of the first mandatory inspection, three years after the vehicle purchase. As an example, the amount exempted for the purchase of a new next generation vehicle is 81,000 yen (

US$975) corresponding to the acquisition tax, and 22,500 yen (

US$271) for the tonnage tax, for a total of 103,500 yen (

US$1,246). Consumers purchasing new next generation electric vehicles, including fuel cell, benefit of a 50% reduction of the annual automobile tax, and natural gas vehicles benefit only if their certified emissions are 75% down from 2005 standards. These incentives were in effect from April 1, 2009 until March 31, 2010, applicable only once. Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles without scrapping a used car are 100,000 yen (

US$1,100) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 50,000 yen (

US$550) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 200,000 yen (

US$2,100) to 900,000 yen (

US$9,600). Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles in the case of owners scrapping a 13 year or older vehicle are 250,000 yen (

US$2,700) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 125,000 yen (

US$1,300) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 400,000 yen (

US$4,300) to 1,800,000 yen (

US$19,000). All incentives for new purchases with or without trading were applicable in Japan’s fiscal year 2009, from April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010. First the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, and later the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) granted tax credits for new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also authorized federal tax credits for converted plug-ins, though the credit is lower than for new PEVs. As defined by the 2009 ACES Act, a PEV is a vehicle which draws propulsion energy from a traction battery with at least 4 kwh of capacity and uses an offboard source of energy to recharge such battery.

The tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles is worth $2,500 plus $417 for each kilowatt-hour of battery capacity over 4 kwh, and the portion of the credit determined by battery capacity cannot exceed $5,000. Therefore, the total amount of the credit allowed for a new PEV is $7,500. The new qualified plug-in electric vehicle credit phases out for a PEV manufacturer over the one-year period beginning with the second calendar quarter after the calendar quarter in which at least 200,000 qualifying vehicles from that manufacturer have been sold for use in the United States. For this purpose cumulative sales are accounted after December 31, 2009. Qualifying PEVs are eligible for 50% of the credit if acquired in the first two quarters of the phase-out period, and 25% of the credit if bought in the third or fourth quarter of the phase-out period.

Both the Nissan Leaf electric vehicle and the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, launched in December 2010, are eligible for the maximum $7,500 tax credit. The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, scheduled for 2012, is eligible for a $2,500 tax credit due to its smaller battery capacity of 5.2 kWh. A 2013 study published in the journal Energy Policy determined that current federal subsidies are not aligned with the goal of decreased gasoline consumption in a consistent and efficient manner. In particular, hybrid-vehicle credit is given according to battery capacity rather than electric-only vehicle range. This has in part encouraged the creation and marketing of vehicles such as the hybrid Cadillac Escalade, which gets a maximum of 23mpg on the highway.

The 2009 ARRA provided a tax credit for plug-in electric drive conversion kits. The credit is equal to 10% of the cost of converting a vehicle to a qualified plug-in electric vehicle and in service after February 17, 2009. The maximum amount of the credit is $4,000. The credit does not apply to conversions made after December 31, 2011. There is a federal tax credit equal to 50% of the cost to buy and install a home-based charging station with a maximum credit of for each station.

Businesses qualify for tax credits up to $50,000 for larger installations. These credits expired on December 31, 2010, but were extended for one year with a reduced tax credit equal to 30% with a maximum credit of up to for each station for individuals and up to for commercial buyers. Two separate initiatives are being pursued in 2011 to transform the tax credit into an instant cash rebate. The objective of both initiatives is to make new qualifying plug-in electric cars more accessible to buyers by making the incentive more effective.

The rebate will be available at the point of sale allowing consumers to avoid a wait of up to a year to apply the tax credit against income tax returns. The first initiative is from Senator Debbie Stabenow who reintroduced the Charging America Forward Act. This bill was originally introduced in August 2010 but was not voted by the full Senate. The bill will turn the tax credit into a rebate worth up to $7500 for plug-in electric vehicles and also provide businesses with a tax credit for purchasing medium or heavy duty plug-in hybrid trucks.

The other initiative is from the Obama Administration that was included in the submitted FY 2012 Budget as a provision to transform the existing credit into a rebate that will be claimable by dealers and passed along to the consumers. Another change to the law governing the plug-in tax credit was introduced by Senator Carl Levin and Representative Sander Levin who are proposing to raise the existing cap on the number of plug-in vehicles eligible for the tax credit. The proposal raises that limit from the existing 200,000 PEVs per manufacturer to 500,000 units. The Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), initially funded with a total of million by the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Resources Board (ARB), was established in order to promote the production and use of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including plug-in electric and fuel cell vehicles.

The program was created from Assembly Bill 118 that was signed by Governor Schwarzenegger in October 2007. The funding is provided on a first-come, first-served basis, and the project is expected to go through 2015. Eligible vehicles include only new ARB-certified or approved zero-emission or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

A list of eligible vehicles can be found on the California Center for Sustainable Energy web site. Among the eligible vehicles are neighborhood electric vehicles, battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles including cars, trucks, medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicles, and zero-emission motorcycles. Vehicles must be purchased or leased on or after March 15, 2010. Rebates of up to $5,000 per light-duty vehicle are available for individuals and business owners who purchase or lease new eligible vehicles.

Certain zero-emission commercial vehicles are also eligible for rebates up to $20,000. According to the Clean Vehicle Rebate Program, a total of $1.4 million were distributed in 2010 for 213 plug-in vehicles that received the rebate, leaving $2.3 million available for 2011. In January 2011 the California Energy Commission (CEC) allocated a $2 million contribution for the program, and considering the $5 million coming in second year funding, funds available for the rebates will amount to $9.3 million in 2011.

The additional $2 million provided by CEC are reserved for rebates of vehicles capable of carrying four passengers and highway driving, providing enough money for 400 more buyers of such plug-in vehicles to benefit from the program. Once these funds were exhausted, the 2011-2012 program offered a lower rebate of up to $2,500. An additional $15 million was allocated for the 2011-2012 year program.

In February 2012, the California Energy Commission approved an additional million to support purchases of light-duty zero-emission electric vehicles and light-duty plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. All vehicles must be capable of freeway operation and certified for at least four passengers. Current availability of CVRP funds can be checked on the California Center for Sustainable Energy web site. The 2011 Chevrolet Volt was not submitted for application to the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project rebate and therefore was not eligible for the state rebate. The reason is that the Volt did not meet the 10-year 150.000-mile (241.402 km) battery warranty requirement for partial zero-emissions vehicles (Enhanced AT-PZEV).

The Volt team explained that for the launch GM decided to go with a common national package which includes an 8-year 100,000-mile (160,000 km) battery warranty. In November 2011 General Motors announced that beginning in February 2012, all models manufactured for the California market will feature a new low emissions package that will allow the 2012 Chevrolet Volt to qualify as an enhanced, advanced technology –partial zero emissions vehicle (enhAT-PZEV) and have access to California’s high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV). The new standard California version of the Volt features a modified engine and exhaust components. The catalytic converter was modified to add a secondary air-injection pump. Owners of a 2012 Volt with the low emissions package will be eligible to apply for one of 40,000 available HOV lane stickers issued to vehicles that qualify as a California AT-PZEV.

Additionally, the new low emissions package will make the 2012 Volt eligible for owners to receive up to in state rebates through the state’s Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP). Only the 2012 Volts manufactured after February 6, 2012, are fitted with the low emission package. As of early September 2012, private individuals accounted for 88% of rebate funds reimbursed.

As of early March 2013, CARB has issued about 18,000 rebates totaling million. Of these, 9,559 all-electric vehicle and 8,842 plug-in hybrid owners had applied for the state’s Clean Vehicle Rebate since January 2011. However, CARB notices that approximately 2,300 Chevrolet Volts were sold in California before the Volt became eligible for the rebate in February 2012.

As a result of the rebate and other existing incentives, such as allowing solo drivers in HOV lanes, California is the leading PEV market in the United States with about 40% of all new plug-in electric vehicles sold nationwide during 2011 and 2012, while the state represents about 10% of all new car sales in the country. Several states have established incentives and tax exemptions for BEVs and PHEVs, and other non-monetary incentives, as detailed in the following table: Other states considering similar incentives are Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas.

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

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