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Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

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Electric vehicle Details

An vehicle ( EV ), also referred to as an drive vehicle . uses one or electric motors or traction for propulsion. Three main of electric vehicles exist, that are directly powered an external power station, that are powered by stored originally from an external source, and those that are by an on-board electrical generator, as an internal combustion engine (a electric vehicle) or a hydrogen cell. EVs include electric electric trains, electric electric aeroplanes, electric electric motorcycles and scooters and spacecraft.

Diesel submarines on battery power are, for the of the battery run, electric and some of the lighter UAVs are Proposals exist for electric EVs first came into in the mid-19th century, when was among the preferred methods for vehicle propulsion, providing a of comfort and ease of operation could not be achieved by the gasoline of the time. The internal combustion (ICE) is the dominant propulsion for motor vehicles but electric has remained commonplace in other types, such as trains and vehicles of all types.

During the few decades, environmental impact of the transportation infrastructure, along the peak oil, has led to renewed in an electric transportation infrastructure. EVs from fossil fuel-powered in that the electricity they can be generated from a wide of sources, including fossil nuclear power, and renewable such as tidal power, power, and wind power or any of those. Currently, though, are more than 400 coal plants in the U.S. alone, that EV operation in regions by these plants are effectively coal for locomotion. However it is this energy is then to the vehicle through use of overhead which necessarily involves loss, wireless energy such as inductive charging, or a connection through an electrical

The electricity may then be stored on the vehicle using a battery, or supercapacitors. Vehicles making use of working on the principle of combustion can only derive their from a single or a few sources, non-renewable fossil fuels. A key of electric or hybrid EVs is regenerative and suspension; their ability to energy normally lost braking as electricity to be restored to the battery or to the electrical grid. motive power started a small drifter operated by a electric motor, built by Davenport in 1835.

In 1838, a named Robert Davidson an electric locomotive that a speed of four miles per (6 km/h). In England a patent was in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of current, and similar American were issued to Lilley and in 1847. Between 1832 and (the exact year is Robert Anderson of Scotland the first crude electric powered by non-rechargeable primary By the 20th century, electric and rail transport were with commercial electric having the majority of the market. time their general-purpose use reduced to specialist roles, as trucks, forklift trucks, tow tractors and urban delivery such as the iconic British float; for most of the 20th the UK was the world’s largest user of road vehicles.

Electrified were used for coal as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the Switzerland’s lack of natural resources forced the rapid of their rail network. One of the rechargeable batteries — the battery — was favored by for use in electric cars.

EVs were the earliest automobiles, and before the of light, powerful internal engines, electric automobiles many vehicle land and distance records in the early They were produced by Electric, Columbia Electric, Electric, and others, and at one point in out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. In in 1900, 28 percent of the cars on the in the USA were electric.

EVs were so that even President Wilson and his secret service toured Washington DC in their Electrics, which covered miles per charge. In the 1930s, City Lines, which was a of General Motors, Firestone, and Oil of California purchased many tram networks across the to dismantle them and replace with GM buses. The partnership was of conspiring to monopolize the sale of and supplies to their subsidiary conspiracy, but were acquitted of to monopolize the provision of transportation Electric tram line could be used to recharge and PHEVs on the highway while the drives, providing virtually driving range. The technology is old and established (see : Conduit collection, Nickel-iron battery).

The has not been built. In January General Motors’ President its EV concept two-seater, the Impact, at the Los Auto Show. That the California Air Resources Board major-automaker sales of EVs, in starting in 1998. From to 1998 GM produced 1117 800 of which were made through three-year leases. Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan and also produced limited of EVs for California drivers.

In 2003, upon the expiration of EV1 leases, GM crushed them. The has variously been attributed to 1) the industry’s successful federal challenge to California’s zero-emissions mandate, 2) a federal regulation GM to produce and maintain spare for the few thousands EV1s and 3) the success of the oil and industries’ media campaign to public acceptance of EVs. A made on the subject in 2005-2006 was Who Killed the Electric Car? and theatrically by Sony Pictures in 2006. The film explores the of automobile manufacturers, oil industry, the government, batteries, hydrogen and consumers, and each of their in limiting the deployment and adoption of technology. Ford released a of their Ford Ecostar vans into the market.

Nissan and Toyota also and crushed most of their which, like the GM EV1s, had available only by closed-end After public protests, sold 200 of its RAV EVs to eager buyers; now sell, five years at over their original price. This lesson did not go BMW of Canada sold off a number of EV’s when their testing ended.

The production of the Berlingo Electrique stopped in 2005.

Government incentives for electric vehicles Details

incentives for plug-in electric have been established by national and local governments the world as a financial incentive for to purchase a plug-in electric The amount of these incentives depends on battery size and the all-electric range, and some extend the benefits to fuel vehicles, and electric vehicle of hybrid electric vehicles and internal combustion engine Ontario established a rebate (4 kWh battery) to (17 kWh or more) (

to ), depending on size, for purchasing or leasing a new electric vehicle after 1, 2010. The rebates are available to the 10,000 applicants who qualify. The also introduced green-coloured plates for exclusive use of plug-in and battery electric vehicles.

unique green vehicle allow PEV owners to travel in the carpool lanes until regardless of the number of passengers in the Also, owners are eligible to use stations at GO Transit and other parking lots. As of July according to the Ministry of Transportation of eligible plug-in electric in the province are the Nissan Leaf, i-MiEV, Tesla Model S, electric drive, Fisker Ford Focus Electric, Volt, Toyota Prius Hybrid, Ford C-Max Ford Fusion Energi, and Transit Connect Electric. began offering rebates of up to () on January 1, 2012, for the purchase of new electric vehicles equipped a minimum of 4 kWh battery, and new hybrid vehicles are eligible for a rebate. vehicles with high-capacity packs are eligible for the full and incentives are reduced for low-range cars and plug-in hybrids.

government earmarked () for the program, and the rebate amount is slowly every year until a of in 2015, but the rebates will until the fund runs There is also a ceiling for the number of eligible vehicles: for all-electric vehicles and plug-in and 5,000 for conventional hybrids. The of British Columbia announced the BC program which will offering rebates of up to per eligible energy vehicle commencing on 1, 2011. The incentives will be until March 31, 2013 or available funding is depleted, comes first.

Available are enough to provide incentives for 1,370 vehicles. Battery vehicles, fuel cell and plug-in hybrids with capacity of 15.0 kWh and above are for a incentive. Also effective 1, 2011, rebates of up to per qualifying vehicle charging equipment be available to B.C. residents who purchased a clean energy On June 1, 2010, the Chinese announced a trial program to incentives up to 60,000 yuan (

in 2011) for private purchase of new electric vehicles and 50,000 (

in June 2011) for plug-in in five cities. The cities in the pilot program are Shanghai, Hangzhou, Hefei and Changchun. The are paid directly to automakers than consumers, but the government that vehicle prices be reduced accordingly.

The amount of the will be reduced once units are sold. In addition to the the Chinese government is planning to beginning on January 1, 2012, an from annual taxes for electric, fuel-cell, and plug-in vehicles. Hybrid vehicles be eligible for a 50% reduction only. As of 2011, 15 of the 27 European Union states provide tax incentives for chargeable vehicles, which all Western European countries the Czech Republic and Romania.

17 countries levy carbon related taxes on passenger as a disincentive. The incentives consist of tax and exemptions, as well as of bonus for buyers of PEVs, hybrid and some alternative fuel Electric vehicles are exempt the fuel consumption tax, upon the first registration, and the monthly vehicle tax.

In to tax breaks, hybrid vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles from a fuel consumption tax pays bonuses to passenger with low carbon dioxide Alternative fuel vehicles, hybrids, qualify for as much as (around ) in annual bonuses. bonus is valid from 1 2008 until 31 August The Belgian government established a income tax deduction of 30% of the purchase including VAT of a new electric vehicle, up to Plug-in hybrids are not eligible.

This tax incentive will end on 31, 2012. There is also a tax deduction up to 40% for investments in external stations publicly accessible, to a of €250. The Wallonia regional has an additional €4,500 eco-bonus for registered before December 31, Electric, hybrid and other fuel vehicles used for purposes are exempt from the tax.

Electric vehicles under 2,000 kg are exempt the new car registration tax since 1985, but models were so limited by 2009 only 497 EVs are registered in the country. The registration tax in Denmark is on the vehicle’s purchase price of the and is set at 105% if the vehicle price is up to (around ) and 180% if the price is DKK79,000. The government also free parking in downtown for EVS.

This exemption not apply to hybrid electric Estonia has allocated a total of in towards the purchase of battery vehicles. Each vehicle is with up to. Until July 31, a premium, under a Bonus-Malus was granted in France up to €5,000 for the of new cars with emissions 2 CO of 60 or less which benefited cars and any plug-in hybrid such low emissions.

Vehicles up to 125 g/km or less, such as and natural gas vehicles, were up to €2,000. The incentive could not 20% of the sales price including increased with the cost of the if it is rented. Effective on August 1, the government increased the bonus for cars up to €7,000 but capped at 30% of the price including VAT.

The includes any battery leasing and therefore, electric cars need a battery leasing also are eligible for the bonus. An car sold for €23 333 including VAT is eligible for the bonus of 7000 euros. The level for the maximum bonus was to 20 gr/km or less. Cars emission levels between 20 to 50 are eligible to a bonus of up to €5,000, and 50 to 60 gr/km are eligible to a bonus of up to

At this limit, the bonus to €550. Electric vehicles and are exempt from the annual tax for a period of five years the date of their first In May 2010 the German government that it will not provide to the sales of electric cars but it will only fund in the area of electric mobility. The use of a company car is treated as taxable in Germany and measured at a flat rate of 1% of the vehicle’s gross price.

So plug-in electric have been at a disadvantage their price tag can be as much as that of a car using a conventional combustion engine due to the high of the battery. In June 2013 legislators approved a law that the tax disadvantage for corporate plug-in cars. The law, backdated to 1 2013, allows private to offset the list price €500 per unit of battery expressed in kilowatt hours

The maximum offset was set at €10,000 to a 20 kWh battery. the amount one can offset sink annually by €50 per kilowatt All electric and hybrid vehicles are from the registration tax. offers a government grant of for the purchase of a new electric cars. and hybrid vehicles had a reduction of up to off the registration tax between July and December 2010. Electric are exempt from the annual tax or ownership tax for five years the date of their first

Thereafter, EVs benefit from a 75% of the tax rate applied to equivalent vehicles. Buyers of electric and other vehicles emitting 60 or less of carbon dioxide are to receive a premium of €3,000 ) until 31 December 2011. In to qualify for the rebate, the owner have concluded an agreement to buy from renewable energy. of electric vehicles and plug in are eligible to receive €9,000 ) from the Monegasque Government.

In vehicles owners are allowed to free at any public parking There are no direct purchase for electric vehicles, but other incentives include total of the registration fee and road taxes, result in savings of approximately for private car owners over years and €19,000 for corporate over five years. vehicles including hybrid are also exempt from taxes if they emit than 95 g/km for diesel-powered or less than 110 g/km for vehicles. Buyers will have access to parking in Amsterdam reserved for battery vehicles, so they will the current wait for a parking in Amsterdam, which can reach up to 10 in some parts of the city.

All-electric cars are exempt in from all non-recurring vehicle including sales tax. vehicles are also exempt the annual road tax, all parking fees, and toll as well as being able to use bus These incentives are in effect 2018 or until the 50,000 EV is achieved. Until June plug-in hybrids have not eligible for these benefits.

the Norwegian tax system levies taxes to heavier vehicles, hybrids are more expensive similar conventional cars due to the weight of the battery pack and its electric components. Beginning on 1 2013, the existing weight for conventional hybrids and plug-in of 10% will be increased to 15% for PHEVs. to a study by an analyst of Statistics the tax exemptions on the purchase of an electric car are almost in comparison to the fully price of a regular internal engine car, which is to a year over a car’s (8 years). The value of the toll for driving into Oslo are per year, the free parking is per year, and electric cars other charges worth a

Without adding value to the of driving in bus lanes, the annual of owning an electric car in Oslo is at per car, per year. The analysis a Toyota Prius Plug-in as the benchmark vehicle. The Norwegian Grønn bil (Green Car) these figures because consider the analysis is based on assumptions. The group argues the analysis used a very total vehicle lifespan of 7.8 while Norway’s’ average is to 18 years; it is very unlikely a vehicle can be parked in Oslo 1,875 hours and 3,000 per year to save the estimated the existing time limits for and the typical EV owner drives km (9,300 mi) per year, not the 6,500 km mi) implicit in the analysis. Using they consider more assumptions, Grønn bil estimates the annual benefit of owning an car in Oslo is estimated at per car, per 40% of Holtsmark’s estimation.

They found that the cost per of CO2 emissions reduced is. not the estimated by Portugal established a government of €5,000 for the first 5,000 new cars sold in the country. In there is in place a €1,500 if the consumer turn in a used car as of the down payment for the new electric

Electric cars are also from the registration tax. offers a government grant of up to 25% of the (or max. €5,000) for the purchase of a new car. Furthermore, through the program (scrappage program), who wish to purchase an electric car receive six vouchers of over (as of 2011) in return for their car.

In May 2011 the Spanish approved a €72 million () fund for 2011 to promote electric The incentives include direct for the acquisition of new electric cars for up to 25% of the price, before tax, to a of €6,000 per vehicle (US$8,600), and 25% of the purchase price of other vehicles such as buses and with a maximum of €15,000 or depending on the range and type of Several regional government incentives for the purchase of alternative vehicles including electric and vehicles.

In Aragón, Asturias, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Mancha, Murcia, Castilla y electric vehicles are eligible to a tax incentive and hybrids to €2,000. In 2011 the Swedish government a 200 million kr program, effective in January 2012, that provide subsidies for the purchase of cars and other super cars with ultra-low emissions (below 50 grams of dioxide per km). There is an exemption from the annual tax for the first five years the date of their first that benefits owners of vehicles with an energy of 37 kWh per 100 km or less, and hybrid vehicles CO 2 emissions of 120 g/km or less.

In for both electric and hybrid the taxable value of the car for the purposes of the benefit in kind of a company car personal income tax is reduced by 40% with the corresponding or comparable or diesel-powered car. The reduction of the value has a cap of 16,000 kr per year. The Car Grant started on 1 January and is available across the U.K.

The reduces the up-front cost of cars by providing a 25% grant the cost of new plug-in cars at (). Both private and business buyers are eligible for this which is received at the point of The subsidy programme is managed in a way to the grant made as part of the Car Scrappage Scheme, allowing to buy an eligible car discounted at the point of with the subsidy claimed by the manufacturer afterwards.

The scheme was announced in January 2009 by the Government. The coalition government, led by Cameron, took office in May and confirmed their support of the on 28 July 2010. This that million would be for the first 15 months of the scheme, the 2011 Spending Review funding for the programme for the lifetime of the of around million. Vehicles for the subsidy must meet the criteria: As of December 2012[update], the cars are eligible for the grant: i-MiEV, Peugeot iOn, C-Zero, Smart electric Nissan Leaf, Vauxhall Chevrolet Volt, Toyota Plug-in Hybrid, Renault Z.E. and the Mia electric. The Tesla is not included on the government’s plug-in car grant list of eligible

Tesla stated that the applied for the scheme, but has not completed its As of December 2012[update], 3,021 have been made the Plug-In Car Grant scheme January 2011, out of 3,293 were registered in the UK and eligible to the A total of 812 eligible PEVs registered during the first months of 2013, bringing the to 4,095 eligible cars since 2011. The Plug-In Car was extended to include vans February 2012.

Van buyers can 20% — up to £8000 — off the of a plug-in van. To be eligible for the vans have to meet criteria to ensure safety, and ultra-low tailpipe emissions. both business and private can the discount at the point of purchase.

The criteria are: or extra of battery performance to show performance after 3 years of use As of 2012[update], a total of 215 claims been made through the Van Grant scheme, and the following are eligible for the grant: BD Otomotiv eTrafic, Mercedes-Benz Vito Faam Ecomile, Faam 2000, Mia U, Renault Kangoo and Smith Electric Edison. The is supporting the ‘Plugged-In Places’ to install vehicle recharging across the UK. The scheme offers to consortia of businesses and public partners to support the installation of vehicle recharging infrastructure in places across the UK. There are Plugged-In Places: East of Greater Manchester; London; Milton Keynes; North Northern Ireland; and Scotland.

The also published an Infrastructure in June 2011. All-electric (BEVs) and eligible plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) for a 100% discount of the London charge. As of April 2013[update], PHEVs include the Chevrolet Vauxhall Ampera and Toyota Plug-in Hybrid. The current Vehicle Discount will end in July 2013. Instead, a new Low Emission Discount scheme be introduced with more emission standards that limit the free access to the charge zone to electric some hybrids, and any car or van that 75g/km or less of CO 2 and meet the 5 emission standards for air quality.

The is designed to limit the growing of diesel vehicles on London’s Mayor Boris Johnson the new scheme in April 2013. The owners of vehicles registered for the Vehicle Discount will be a three-year sunset period June 2016) before have to pay the full congestion

The Central Government, through the of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), a subsidy of 20% on the ex-factory price or, is less, typically amounting to –. The of NCT – Delhi provides a 15% subsidy on the of the Reva car in New Delhi. This ended on 31 March 2012. The Japanese government introduced the electric vehicle incentive in 1996, and it was integrated in 1998 the Clean Energy Vehicles Project, which provided and tax discounts for the purchase of electric, gas, methanol and hybrid vehicles. The project provided a subsidy of up to 50% the incremental costs of a energy vehicle as compared the price of a conventional engine This program was extended 2003.

In May 2009 the Japanese passed the Green Vehicle Promotion Measure that into effect on June 19, but retroactive to April 10, 2009. The established tax deductions and exemptions for friendly and fuel efficient according to a set of stipulated environmental criteria, and the requirements are applied to both foreign and domestically vehicles. The program provides subsidies for two type of cases, purchasing a new passenger car without (non-replacement program), and for those buying a new car trading an used car 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage New next generation vehicles, electric and fuel cell plug-in hybrids, hybrid vehicles, clean diesel and gas vehicles are exempted from the acquisition tax and the tonnage tax.

fuel efficient and low emission cars, mini cars, and vehicles have a tax reduction vary between 50 to 75% depending on the of the new vehicle as compared to 2010 efficiency standards and their with respect to 2005 standards. Acquisition taxes on vehicles will be reduced by to 2.7%, or between 150,000 yen (

and 300,000 yen (

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

US$3,200). Electric and cell vehicles have a reduction while plug-in have a 2.4% reduction. incentives are in effect from 1, 2009 until March 31, for the acquisition tax which is paid at the time of purchase.

The tonnage tax are in effect from April 1, until April 30, 2012 and the is applicable once, at the time of the mandatory inspection, three after the vehicle purchase. As an the amount exempted for the purchase of a new generation vehicle is 81,000 yen (

US$975) corresponding to the acquisition and 22,500 yen (

US$271) for the tonnage for a total of 103,500 yen (

US$1,246). purchasing new next generation vehicles, including fuel benefit of a 50% reduction of the annual tax, and natural gas vehicles only if their certified are 75% down from 2005 These incentives were in from April 1, 2009 March 31, 2010, applicable once. Subsidies for purchases of new friendly vehicles without a used car are 100,000 yen (

US$1,100) for the of a standard or small car, and yen (

US$550) for the purchase of a mini or kei Subsidies for purchasing trucks and meeting the stipulated fuel and emission criteria vary 200,000 yen (

US$2,100) to 900,000 yen (

Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally vehicles in the case of owners a 13 year or older vehicle are yen (

US$2,700) for the purchase of a standard or car, and 125,000 yen (

US$1,300) for the of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for trucks and buses meeting the fuel efficiency and emission vary between 400,000 yen (

to 1,800,000 yen (

US$19,000). All incentives for new with or without trading applicable in Japan’s fiscal 2009, from April 1, through March 31, 2010. the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of and later the American Clean and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) tax credits for new qualified plug-in drive motor vehicles. The Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 also authorized federal tax for converted plug-ins, though the is lower than for new PEVs. As by the 2009 ACES Act, a PEV is a which draws propulsion from a traction battery at least 4 kwh of capacity and uses an source of energy to recharge battery.

The tax credit for new plug-in vehicles is worth $2,500 $417 for each kilowatt-hour of capacity over 4 kwh, and the of the credit determined by battery cannot exceed $5,000. the total amount of the credit for a new PEV is $7,500. The new qualified plug-in vehicle credit phases out for a PEV over the one-year period with the second calendar after the calendar quarter in at least 200,000 qualifying from that manufacturer been sold for use in the United For this purpose cumulative are accounted after December 31, Qualifying PEVs are eligible for 50% of the if acquired in the first two quarters of the period, and 25% of the credit if bought in the or fourth quarter of the phase-out

Both the Nissan Leaf vehicle and the Chevrolet Volt hybrid, launched in December are eligible for the maximum $7,500 tax The Toyota Prius Plug-in scheduled for 2012, is eligible for a tax credit due to its smaller battery of 5.2 kWh. A 2013 study in the journal Energy Policy that current federal are not aligned with the goal of gasoline consumption in a consistent and manner. In particular, hybrid-vehicle is given according to battery rather than electric-only range. This has in part the creation and marketing of vehicles as the hybrid Cadillac Escalade, gets a maximum of 23mpg on the

The 2009 ARRA provided a tax for plug-in electric drive kits. The credit is equal to 10% of the of converting a vehicle to a qualified electric vehicle and in service February 17, 2009. The maximum of the credit is $4,000. The credit not apply to conversions made December 31, 2011. There is a tax credit equal to 50% of the cost to buy and a home-based charging station a maximum credit of for each

Businesses qualify for tax credits up to for larger installations. These expired on December 31, 2010, but extended for one year with a tax credit equal to 30% with a credit of up to for each station for and up to for commercial buyers. Two separate are being pursued in 2011 to the tax credit into an instant rebate. The objective of both is to make new qualifying plug-in cars more accessible to by making the incentive more

The rebate will be available at the of sale allowing consumers to a wait of up to a year to apply the tax against income tax returns. The initiative is from Senator Stabenow who reintroduced the Charging Forward Act. This was originally introduced in August but was not voted by the full Senate. The will turn the tax credit a rebate worth up to $7500 for electric vehicles and also businesses with a tax credit for medium or heavy duty hybrid trucks.

The other is from the Obama Administration was included in the submitted FY 2012 as a provision to transform the existing into a rebate that be claimable by dealers and passed to the consumers. Another change to the law the plug-in tax credit was introduced by Carl Levin and Representative Levin who are proposing to raise the cap on the number of plug-in vehicles for the tax credit. The proposal raises limit from the existing PEVs per manufacturer to 500,000 The Clean Vehicle Rebate (CVRP), initially funded a total of million by the California Protection Agency’s Air Resources (ARB), was established in order to the production and use of zero-emission vehicles including plug-in electric and cell vehicles.

The program was created from Bill 118 that was signed by Schwarzenegger in October 2007. The is provided on a first-come, first-served and the project is expected to go through Eligible vehicles include new ARB-certified or approved zero-emission or hybrid electric vehicles.

A of eligible vehicles can be found on the Center for Sustainable Energy web Among the eligible vehicles are electric vehicles, battery plug-in hybrid electric, and cell vehicles including trucks, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and zero-emission motorcycles. must be purchased or leased on or March 15, 2010. Rebates of up to per light-duty vehicle are available for and business owners who purchase or new eligible vehicles.

Certain commercial vehicles are also for rebates up to $20,000. According to the Vehicle Rebate Program, a of $1.4 million were in 2010 for 213 plug-in vehicles received the rebate, leaving million available for 2011. In 2011 the California Energy (CEC) allocated a $2 million for the program, and considering the $5 million in second year funding, available for the rebates will to $9.3 million in 2011.

The $2 million provided by CEC are reserved for of vehicles capable of carrying passengers and highway driving, enough money for 400 more of such plug-in vehicles to from the program. Once funds were exhausted, the program offered a lower of up to $2,500. An additional $15 million was for the 2011-2012 year program.

In 2012, the California Energy approved an additional million to purchases of light-duty zero-emission vehicles and light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. All vehicles be capable of freeway operation and for at least four passengers. availability of CVRP funds can be on the California Center for Sustainable web site. The 2011 Chevrolet was not submitted for application to the Clean Rebate Project rebate and was not eligible for the state rebate. The is that the Volt did not meet the 150.000-mile (241.402 km) battery requirement for partial zero-emissions (Enhanced AT-PZEV).

The Volt explained that for the launch GM to go with a common national which includes an 8-year (160,000 km) battery warranty. In 2011 General Motors that beginning in February all models manufactured for the California will feature a new low emissions that will allow the Chevrolet Volt to qualify as an advanced technology –partial emissions vehicle (enhAT-PZEV) and access to California’s high-occupancy lanes (HOV). The new standard version of the Volt features a engine and exhaust components. The converter was modified to add a secondary pump. Owners of a 2012 with the low emissions package be eligible to apply for one of 40,000 HOV lane stickers issued to that qualify as a California

Additionally, the new low emissions package make the 2012 Volt for owners to receive up to in state through the state’s Clean Rebate Project (CVRP). the 2012 Volts manufactured February 6, 2012, are fitted the low emission package. As of early 2012, private individuals for 88% of rebate funds reimbursed.

As of March 2013, CARB has about 18,000 rebates million. Of these, 9,559 vehicle and 8,842 plug-in owners had applied for the state’s Vehicle Rebate since 2011. However, CARB that approximately 2,300 Volts were sold in before the Volt became for the rebate in February 2012.

As a of the rebate and other existing such as allowing solo in HOV lanes, California is the leading PEV in the United States with 40% of all new plug-in electric vehicles nationwide during 2011 and while the state represents 10% of all new car sales in the country. Several have established incentives and tax for BEVs and PHEVs, and other incentives, as detailed in the following Other states considering incentives are Connecticut, Massachusetts, New and Texas.

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

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