Battery electric vehicle

28 Фев 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Battery electric vehicle отключены
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

Contents

Terminology

Vehicles using both electric motors and internal combustion engines are examples of hybrid electric vehicles. and are not considered pure or all-electric vehicles because they cannot be externally charged (operate in charge-sustaining mode) and instead they are continually recharged with power from the internal combustion engine and regenerative braking. [ 2 ]

Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally to displace some or all of their internal combustion engine power and gasoline fuel are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and run as BEVs during their charge-depleting mode. PHEVs with a series powertrain are also called range-extended electric vehicles (REEVs), such as the Chevrolet Volt and Fisker Karma .

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles, (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

In China, plug-in electric vehicles, together with hybrid electric vehicles are called new energy vehicles (NEVs). [ 4 ] However, in the United States, neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are battery electric vehicles that are legally limited to roads with posted speed limits no higher than 45 miles per hour (72 km/h), are usually built to have a top speed of 30 miles per hour (48 km/h), and have a maximum loaded weight of 3,000 lbs. [ 5 ]

Vehicles

The concept of battery electric vehicles is to use charged batteries on board vehicles for propulsion. Battery electric cars are becoming more and more attractive with the advancement of new battery technology (Lithium Ion ) that have higher power and energy density (i.e. greater possible acceleration and more range with fewer batteries) and higher oil prices. [ 6 ]

Electric bus

A battery-electric minibus in St Helens, England

Chattanooga, Tennessee operates nine zero-fare electric buses, which have been in operation since 1992 and have carried 11.3 million passengers and covered a distance of 3,100,000 kilometres (1,900,000 mi), They were made locally by Advanced Vehicle Systems. Two of these buses were used for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. [ 7 ] [ 8 ]


Beginning in the summer of 2000, Hong Kong Airport began operating a 16-passenger Mitsubishi Rosa electric shuttle bus, and in the fall of 2000, New York City began testing a 66-passenger battery-powered school bus. an all electric version of the Blue Bird TC/2000. [ 9 ] A similar bus was operated in Napa Valley, California for 14 months ending in April, 2004. [ 10 ]

The 2008 Beijing Olympics used a fleet of 50 electric buses, which have a range of 130 km (81 mi) with the air conditioning on. They use Lithium-ion batteries, and consume about 1 kW·h/mi (0.62 kW·h/km; 2.2 MJ/km). The buses were designed by the Beijing Institute of Technology and built by the Jinghua Coach Co. Ltd. [ 11 ] The batteries are replaced with fully charged ones at the recharging station to allow 24 hour operation of the buses. [ 12 ]

In France. the bus electric phenomenon is in development, but we already can find some of them in operation in numerous cities of France. [ 13 ] PVI, a medium company located in the Paris region, is one of the leader of the market with its brand Gepebus (offering Oreos 2X and Oreos 4X ). [ 14 ]

In the United States. the first battery-electric, fast-charge bus has been in operation in Pomona, California since September 2010 at Foothill Transit. The Proterra EcoRide BE35 uses lithium-titanate batteries and is able to fast-charge in less than 10 minutes. [ 15 ]

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

Thunder Sky

Thunder Sky (based in Hong Kong) builds lithium-ion batteries used in submarines and has three models of electric buses, the 10/21 passenger EV-6700 with a range of 280 km (170 mi) under 20 mins quick-charge, the EV-2009 city buses, and the 43 passenger EV-2008 highway bus, which has a range of 300 km (190 mi) under quick-charge (20 mins to 80%), and 350 km (220 mi) under full charge (25 mins). The buses will also be built in the United States and Finland. [ 16 ]

Valence

Valence Technology has entered into a contract with The Tanfield Group Plc [ 17 ] to manufacture and supply Lithium Phosphate energy storage systems to power Tanfield’s all-electric commercial delivery vehicles. The Valence battery systems will be installed in vans and trucks produced by Tanfield’s UK-based trading division, Smith Electric Vehicles, the world’s largest manufacturer of electric vans and trucks.

Tindo is an all-electric bus from Adelaide, Australia. The Tindo (aboriginal word for sun) is made by Designline International [ 18 ] in New Zealand and gets its electricity from a solar PV system on Adelaide’s central bus station. Rides are zero-fare as part of Adelaide’s public transport system. [ 19 ]

Seoul Metropolitan Government runs the world’s first commercial all-electric bus service. The bus was developed by Hyundai Heavy Industries and Hankuk Fiber which make a lightweight body from carbon composite material. Provided with Li-on battery and regenerative braking, the bus may run to 52 miles (84 km) in a single 30 minutes charge. The maximum speed is 62 miles per hour (100 km/h). [ 20 ]

Proterra’s EcoRide BE35 transit bus, called the Ecoliner by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California, is the world’s first heavy duty, fast charge, battery-electric bus. Proterra’s ProDrive drive-system uses a UQM motor and regenerative braking that captures 90% of the available energy and returns it to the TerraVolt energy storage system, which in turn increases the total distance the bus can drive by 31-35%. It can travel 30–40 miles on a single charge, is up to 600% more fuel-efficient than a typical diesel or CNG bus, and produces 44% less carbon than CNG. [ 21 ]

The Port of Los Angeles and South Coast Air Quality Management District have demonstrated a short-range heavy-duty all electric truck capable of hauling a fully loaded 40-foot (12 m) cargo container. The current design is capable of pulling a 60,000 lb (27 t) cargo container at speeds up to 40 mph (64 km/h) and has a range of between 30 and 60 miles (48 and 97 km). It uses 2 kilowatt-hours per mile (1.2 kW·h/km; 4.5 MJ/km), compared to 5 miles per US gallon (47 L/100 km; 6.0 mpg -imp ) for the hostler semi tractors it replaces. [ 22 ]

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV

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