Convert an Old Car to a Hybrid Green Transportation MOTHER EARTH NEWS

9 Июн 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Convert an Old Car to a Hybrid Green Transportation MOTHER EARTH NEWS отключены
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Alternative-energy vehicles been motoring through the of MOTHER since 1970. Our to the energy crisis at that took the form of a number of into alcohol, ethanol, and ultra-efficient diesel engines. But in Dave Arthurs, then of Arkansas, came upon a combining electric and gas engine that made even the dollar development efforts in seem like a waste of

Using parts that he had for under $1,500, Dave and built an engine system for his GT that could propel the car 75 or more on a single gallon of Dave’s Opel was a hybrid vehicle. That is, the car was driven by an electric motor and a conventional combustion engine. An array of batteries provided the direct for the electric drive, while an six-horsepower (hp) lawnmower ran continuously to generate power for and the batteries. The combination of power made the car amazingly versatile.

The alone could be used for of under 25 miles, but the car had an unlimited as long as the generator engine was and the driver didn’t have a for drag racing. Additionally, if the power plant developed a the Opel could travel on the engine alone at speeds of 30 per hour. Dave reported the crossbreed hookup performed so that, initially, MOTHER’S were more than a bit

It was decided that the only way to test the design was to build our

A few weeks later, we had a hybrid comfortably placed in a 1973 chassis. We had decided to install a bigger generator engine, but our car averaged 83.6 miles to the ran flawlessly, and emitted a minimum of as it tooled along the highway. The caught on like wildfire MOTHER readers and over the of the next year, 60,000 asked for plans to convert cars.

As might be imagined, technology has along at a pretty brisk since 1979, and recently we gratified to hear that has been to the drawing board converting the engine of a 1980 pickup into an even efficient hybrid of electric and gas The results are simply better ever. MOTHER spoke to at his Fayatteville, Arkansas, home his designs.

Some Electricity  

If it has been more than a few since physics class, and talk of amps and volts you in the dark, here’s a short Dynamic electricity is simply number of freed electrons, or charged atomic particles—set in An amp, or ampere, is a measure of the of electrons flowing through a (in most cases, a copper In other words, an amp is a measurement of the of electricity. When the electrons through the wire, they resistance from other and particles.

An ohm is a measure of this A volt is a measure of the force of the flow which causes one of electricity to travel through one ohm of A nine-volt battery, for instance, is of generating a flow of nine of electricity through a one-ohm wire.

How has the format of the hybrid changed since 1979?

there have been a few developments in combustion engine over the last decade, technology has taken the real That’s fortunate for the hybrid car the electric engine provides the share of the motivation. Basically, are getting lighter and more Six-volt batteries were the types suitable for my purposes in the ’70s. Have you ever one of those old six-volt batteries?

monsters. I had to use six to generate the appropriate and at 75 pounds apiece, a very amount of the batteries’ energy was hauling itself around. The new weigh precisely the same but twice as much power.

As a result, cruising range has now extended, as has as average cruising The batteries I use are deep-cycle with a power of 1,314 amps. I recommend a 36-volt circuit, so need at least three of 12-volt batteries. Most will draw 150-200 at 45 mph.

When looking for a compare the reserve capacity and the of plates per battery. A high indicates deep-cycle capability and output. One battery I’ve has 186 plates and a 75-amp, 12-volt for 100 minutes.

But does a conventional still supply the batteries power?

Absolutely. That’s a if you want to travel distances of 25 miles. The small combustion must operate at a constant if a long-range drive is in the works, the batteries with power. I three 12-volt, heavy-duty batteries—in series—fed by a 10-amp to do that job.

The small then powers the generator. But I I wanted a bit more power in the new so I decided to forgo another gasoline engine in favor of a diesel. That’s equivalent to a 20-hp gasoline engine.

It out to be a perfect arrangement. It has tremendous will bear very loads without stalling, and is reliable.

Can the batteries be charged at if you want to just use them for a trip?

Sure. Either a charger can be used to charge all batteries at once or a 12-volt (which is much less can be used to charge each individually. Either one can be plugged a standard home outlet.

The rate here in Arkansas is 74 per At that rate the cost is than a penny per mile to the hybrid in the electric mode. But the is limited by the number and type of that you use.

If you want to be to drive for longer distances on the drive alone, the battery must be enlarged accordingly.

How I arrive at the right battery for my own car?

A typical 2,500 hybrid electric car will approximately 200 amps at 36 volts to run 45 Using that kind of you can arrive at the best kind of pack for your particular For instance, two banks of the 186-plate, batteries (six batteries) has kwh available. It takes 7.2 kwh to go 45 miles on the road.

With this battery you should have a good of drive time on the batteries

How does the conversion process

It can happen in many different The simplest modification that you can will give you a parallel Add an electric motor to the existing of a car through drive belts, an electric clutch (much an air compressor), and that’s basically it.

The engine and electric motor run in and offer considerably improved economy. The disadvantage to this is that the large gas engine has to run all the It would be better if you could run on gas or electric independently of each The series hybrid accomplishes

In that design (used in the the small diesel engine provides the motive force of the In other words it drives a to provide electricity to the electric This method has several The diesel engine can be run at a constant of revolutions per minute matching its fuel economy, and the electricity the produces can be shunted directly to the motor or into a battery

One of the greatest things about a hybrid is its efficiency. Very power is wasted. Every you are going downhill and every you stop, you have the opportunity to that inertia into

You see, the electric motor drives the vehicle is also a A motor and a generator are virtually the animal as long as we are speaking direct current electricity. And you are slowing down, you are actually down. This over-revs the turning it into a generator produces electricity for the batteries. If you at the amp meter, you actually can see electricity to the batteries when this

This is not only energy but also saves a great of wear on the brakes because it the truck down.

Why did you choose a for your new design?

I just happened to have a truck to modify. Any car can be used the lighter the better) for a hybrid. I a test vehicle capable of different versions, both and parallel, so I settled on a four-wheel pickup because there is room in the rear for the engine/generator while the original engine up front. The rear wheels are by the electric motor; the front by the gas engine. Vehicles modified at will probably have the engine removed, but I needed to demonstrate efficiency, performance,

The truck is modified by removing the drive shaft altogether and a short drive shaft and an clutch to the motor. The short shaft is the same as the front shaft in length.

What of performance are you getting?

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The electric performs and accelerates best at low as opposed to a gasoline engine has most of its torque at the high So depending upon maintenance, etc. you accelerate from to 40 mph in six to eight seconds. The engine-driven can handle the demand from the motor up to speeds of about 50 The stored energy in the batteries into play at higher giving extra kick for and climbing hills. Gearing can be if higher performance is desired but the was never really intended to be a

I was gunning for reliability and efficiency. Let the enthusiasts think up a supercharger if want one!

But isn’t the truck dramatically different driving a conventional car?

exactly the same. There is a hum from the electric motor and a bit of from the diesel engine, but noise levels in the cab are lower those in a conventional car.

kind of mileage do you get when the engine is running?

A 25-mile run using the nine-hp diesel showed that a gallon of could produce sufficient at 36 volts to drive the car two hours at 45 That’s 90 miles to the gallon. If the had been a bit less hilly, the speed would have closer to 55 mph.

It’s to realize, however that traffic shortens the range and efficiency because of the heavy draws (600 amps) in off. That’s where the current (cranking power) of the comes in. A great deal of driving will certainly overall fuel economy.

Lead and acid batteries are not exactly nature’s best though. They’re going to around those landfills after we’re gone, lead and acid the whole How big an issue has that been in design?

If you’re careful, you never throw away the in the truck. When exhausted, can be cheaply rebuilt by the manufacturer. The is getting consumers to want to them.

Here in Arkansas, in to make sure that as few and their contaminating agents as end up in the landfills, a $10 fine has been on any buyer of a battery who doesn’t the old one with them. All those old go back and get remanufactured.

The Opel cost you $1,500. What has to the prices of equipment since

The main expense was, and is, the electric motor, which is the starter motor for some jet engines. Often they can be surplus for as little as $300—$400. A new one run you about $800. Wiring, and relays generally cost $400, a generator about The last—and most variable big the combustion engine.

A lightweight may run just fine on the 5-hp used in my first car. be writing a check for about $200-$300 for that one, but if power and bigger engine are the costs will go up. My diesel ran me about $1,200. It’s to remember that all of these will go down considerably, if you are willing to do some scrounging and

A careful buyer can spend as as $2,000 for the whole thing, I’ve known folks who out twice that much for equipment and custom installation.

Do you this process very if the conversion’s going to cost from the start?

It’s very practical if you happen to an old car or truck with serious problems that you still to keep around. I’m not that you tear the engine out of new ’93, but an older car that has a good chassis will run for years on the hybrid drive, two to three times the mileage and a fraction of the pollutants in the process.

How many years will the run before problems begin? 

You not believe this, but I’m using the same electric that I installed in the Opel in and that motor was built in It has over 100,000 miles on it and the maintenance it has ever required is $8 for The only possible problem an electric motor is overheating, so made a point of using a fan and running it continuously. The weakest in the chain is obviously the combustion

The 5-hp lawn mower I used in the Opel lasted a few years, but it was so cheap that it was really no big deal. Eventually I that the new design merited an in the diesel, which I purchased new in It’s still running

I think the chassis will apart before the engine

What’s on the horizon for hybrid

I’m in the process of experimenting a rotary engine currently. One of its advantages is that it can be modified to run on any kind of fuel-alcohol, peanut anything. I’ve also some plans for people who maximum battery range. My banks can sustain the car for well 100 miles.

That’s more enough for most commuter NASA has already designed batteries which can take a charge in minutes. That will just get cheaper and accessible, and in the not too distant future I that fuel stations offer quick chargers for battery packs in addition to fuel.

The best experiments really just started.

Opel Ampera Electric Cars
Opel Ampera Electric Cars
Opel Ampera Electric Cars
Opel Ampera Electric Cars
Opel Ampera Electric Cars


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