Microfinance Innovations Sustainable Development The history …

19 Мар 2014 | Author: | Комментарии к записи Microfinance Innovations Sustainable Development The history … отключены
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. – 22 kWh Li-ion

Revolutions: the hybrid, the fuel cell… and lithium batteries

In the 1990s, a new kind of motorisation appeared: hybrid technology, or the combination of a thermic engine with an electric engine. In 1998, Toyota launched its first Prius, a model that remains a reference and a commercial success to this day. Following long years of research, GM counter attacked, resulting in the rechargeable hybrid model, the Chevrolet Volt, commercially available since 2010.

The market has opened up, slowly but surely, to alternative power sources.

At the beginning of the noughties, the batteries available for electric traction were still either lead or nickel, with the Ni-Cd and NiMH (nickel metal hydride) options. These storage batteries were not powerful enough to provide sufficient range for mass production. So manufacturers saw no other option but the generation of electric energy on board the vehicle, through hydrogen-fed fuel cells. Despite the difficulties of storing hydrogen on board, a 500-km (311-mile) range has become possible while keeping the vehicle’s spaciousness intact.

Considerable progress has been made with proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) over the past two decades; however, the mass production of these vehicles has been regularly delayed. As the technological solutions are not yet …, the costs remain high and the hydrogen distribution infrastructure is at an embryonic stage. Today, the arrival of the first fuel-cell-powered electric vehicles is not expected before 2015, and will more likely be after 2020.

In the meantime, another major innovation would inject new blood into the 100%-electric vehicle: lithium batteries. A product of the portable electronics world, this new material made its first appearance in the automotive sector in 1996 in the Nissan Prairie Joy prototype. These new batteries are more stable and therefore safer, don’t suffer from memory effect[1], and have enabled the electric vehicle to double its range to reach between 150 and 300 km (93 to 186 miles) depending on the model.

These batteries would breathe new life into the electric car when compared with the old-generation lead or nickel batteries, sullying the popularity of the hydrogen fuel cell as the only solution in terms of range.

From here on, there was new potential for the battery-powered, 100%-electric vehicle. Concept cars and small-scale tests would follow, and manufacturers started to emulate each other again. New US firm Tesla Motors made waves in 2005 with its sporty Tesla Roadster, fitted with Li-ion battery packs. American celebrities adopted it; now, the electric car was something to dream about. The first Lithium-ion battery production models arrived in 2010: the Think City from small Scandinavian firm Think, the Citroën C-Zero and the Peugeot Ion, as well as the Nissan Leaf, voted [European] Car of the Year 2011.

The Renault-Nissan Alliance, which invested €4bn (£3.38bn) in its EV project, is preparing to launch four Renault models onto the market: the Fluence Z.E. saloon, the Kangoo Z.E. commercial vehicle and the Twizy urban quadricycle in 2011, and the ZOE city car in 2012. As for the Breton manufacturer Bolloré, which won the tender for the Parisian Autolib’ scheme, it’s counting on Lithium-Polymer battery technology in its Pininfarina-designed BlueCar. For the electric vehicle, supply and competition have never been so great, and the stakes have never been so high.

Its hour has, perhaps, finally come.

Significant dates in the history of the electric vehicle

1859 . Frenchman Gaston Planté invented the rechargeable lead-acid battery. It would be improved by Camille Faure in 1881.

1881 . French engineer Charles Jeantaud built the Tilbury, one of the very first electric vehicles. Powered by around twenty components, the vehicle caught fire 100 metres away from the workshop …

1894 . The Electrobat was widely cited as the first “viable” battery-powered electric car. Designed by engineer Henry G. Morris and chemist Perdo G. Salomon in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it went into production in 1895. Future improvements meant it could reach 32 km/h (virtually 20 mph) and cover 40 km (almost 25 miles) on one charge.

1897 . The London Electric Cab Company offered an electric hackney cab service. These rudimentary vehicles, designed by Walter Bersey, were aimed at an upper-crust clientele already used to horse-drawn carriages.

1899 . On 1st May 1899 in Belgium, Camille Jenatzy established a world record by taking “La Jamais Contente” (“Never Satisfied”), an electric racing car shaped like a torpedo, to speeds over 100km/h (62 mph).

1911 . The Detroit Electric company (Michigan) started producing relatively successful electric vehicles, fitted with lead-acid batteries, capable of driving 130 km (80 miles) at 32 km/h (around 20 mph). Several thousand models were sold until 1916.

1925 . George Levy founded the Société des Véhicules Electriques. Under the Sovel and Vetra marques, the company produced hundreds of electric commercial vehicles (of between 12 and 17 tons) in France every year. The vehicles’ performance was limited: 15 km/h (9 mph) with a range of around 30 km (almost 19 miles).

1940 . Artist Paul Arzens showed his Œuf (Egg), a small electric car made out of aluminium, with a very futuristic design. For the time, this prototype’s statistics were surprising: a top speed of 70 km/h (43 mph) and a 100-km (62-mile) range.

1941 . Born during the Occupation, Jean Albert Grégoire’s CGE Tudor established a new speed record, driving from Paris to Tours on a single charge, that’s to say 250 km (155 miles), at an average speed of 42 km/h (26.1 mph).

1941 . The Peugeot VLV (“voiture légère de ville” – light city vehicle) was a three-wheel convertible model. With four 12V batteries, it could get up to 40 km/h (almost 25 mph) and cover 80 km (about 50 miles). 377 models were sold by 1945.

1947 . In Japan, Nissan and the Tokyo Electric Cars Company developed the Tama Electric in order to deal with energy shortages. Fitted with replaceable lead-acid batteries, this van could reach 35 km/h (21.7 mph) and drive 65 km (40.4 miles).

1959 . In partnership with American company Eureka Williams, Renault developed the Henney Kilowatt, based on the Dauphine, one of the first modern electric cars. Fitted with 18 2V batteries, the car claimed to have a top speed of 60 km/h (37 mph) and a 60-km (37-mile) range. It was too expensive to produce and remained at the prototype stage.

1967 . The 2.03m-long Ford Comuta relaunched the small electric car as an urban mobility solution. It could carry two adults and two children at 64 km/h (40 mph) and cover between 40 and 65 km (24.9 to 40.4 miles) on one charge.

1974 . After the oil crisis, Florida-based company Sebring-Vanguard brought out the first mass-produced electric car: the CitiCar, a mini-car fitted with lead-acid batteries (8 x 6V) that could cover 60 km (37 miles) and drive at 50 km/h (31 mph). Some 2,000 models were built between 1974 and 1977.

1984 . Peugeot designed an electric 205 model equipped with a Saft (nickel-iron) battery capable of reaching 100 km/h (62 mph) and with a range of up to 140 km (87 miles).

1985 . As part of the VOLTA 4 programme, Renault developed an electric commercial vehicle called the Master. It was fitted with Saft nickel-iron batteries, could drive at 80 km/h (49.7 mph) and had a 120-km (75-mile) range; it also had a 1,000-kg payload.

RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. – 22 kWh Li-ion

1990 . Supported by the state of California, GM launched an ambitious electric vehicle programme based on the Impact concept car unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show that year. This project led to the production of a thousand EV1 models between 1996 and 1998, before it was abandoned.

1991 . Renault introduced the Elektro-Clio at the Frankfurt Motor Show.

1995 . PSA decided to commercialise the mass-produced 100%-electric Peugeot 106 and Citroën Saxo models. By 2002, only 10,000 cars had been sold – this was well below the target of 1000,000.

1997 . Following several years of tests, the INRIA working group implemented its Praxitèle development project, the first fleet of self-service electric hire cars, in Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines. Some 50 electric cars (Renault Clios) were available in 5 car parks.

1997 . Toyota launched the Prius, the first ever mass-produced hybrid car.

2003 . Renault started selling the Kangoo Elect’Road, a hybrid version of the “ludospace” (leisure activity vehicle) fitted with rechargeable batteries and capable of covering 140 km (about 87 miles).

2005 . Tesla Motors launched the Tesla Roadster. This 100%-electric sports car, equipped with Lithium-ion battery packs, claimed high performance.

2006 . Bolloré introduced the first-generation BlueCar, which is counting on Lithium Polymer battery technology.

2009 . At the Frankfurt Motor Show, Renault unveiled its electric vehicle programme: the Fluence Z.E. Kangoo Z.E. ZOE and Twizy models.

2010 .

— PSA commercialised the 100%-electric Citroën C-Zéro and Peugeot Ion models. These are fitted with Lithium-ion batteries and can reach 130 km/h (80.8 mph) with a range of 160 km (almost 100 miles).

— BMW put an electric version of the Mini on sale: at 204 horsepower, with a maximum range of 200 km (124 miles).

— Nissan launched is compact saloon, the Leaf, which was voted European Car of the Year 2011. A first.

16 марта 2011 г. 19:09:05 (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00) Коментарии [0] —

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