Plugin electric vehicle Green Wiki

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Audi A6 Electric Cars

Plug-in electric vehicle


Several national and governments have established tax subsidies, and other incentives to the introduction and adoption in the mass of plug-in electric vehicles on battery size and their range. The term plug-in drive vehicle is formally in U.S. federal legislation to this type of consumer [4] [5] In China, plug-in electric together with hybrid vehicles are called new energy (NEVs), and are also subject to incentives. [6]

Most electric in the world roads are low-speed, neighborhood electric vehicles. Research estimated there almost 479,000 NEVs on the roads in 2011. [7] The top selling NEV is the GEM which as of December 2010 had more than 45,000 worldwide since 1998. [8] As of 2012 update . more 145,000 highway-capable plug-in vehicles have been worldwide since 2008. [9] The Nissan Leaf is the world’s top highway-capable all-electric car, global sales of 46,000 by December 2012, followed by the family, with global sales of about 21,000 by November 2012, including rebadged as Peugeot iOn and Citroën and sold in the European market. As of 2012 update . the world’s top plug-in hybrid car is the Chevrolet which together with its the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera has sold than 35,500 units in America and Europe.

The Prius PHV is the second top selling hybrid, with 23,000 sold in Japan, North and Europe through November


Terminology Edit

electric vehicle Edit

A electric vehicle (PEV) is any vehicle with rechargeable packs that can be charged the electric grid. and the electricity on board drives or contributes to the wheels for propulsion. [1] [2] Plug-in vehicles are also sometimes to as grid-enabled vehicles (GEV) [2] and as electrically chargeable vehicles.

Plug-in electric drive is the legal term used in federal legislation to designate the of motor vehicles eligible for tax credits depending on battery and their all-electric range. [4] [5] In European countries, particularly in electrically chargeable vehicle is the term used to designate the eligible for these incentives. While the term plug-in vehicle most often to automobiles or plug-in cars, are several other types of electric vehicle, including motorcycles. neighborhood electric or microcars. city cars. light trucks or light vehicles. buses. trucks or and military vehicles. [13]

Battery electric vehicles

A plug-in hybrid operates as an all vehicle or BEV when operating in mode, but it switches to charge-sustaining after the battery has reached its state of charge (SOC) exhausting the vehicle’s all-electric (AER). [15] [16]

hybrid electric vehicles

A plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV or PHV), also as a plug-in hybrid, is a hybrid vehicle with rechargeable that can be restored to full by connecting a plug to an external power source. [2] [17] A hybrid shares the characteristics of a conventional hybrid electric and an all-electric vehicle. it uses a engine and an electric motor for but a PHEV has a larger battery that can be recharged, allowing in all-electric mode until the is depleted. [17] [18]

Aftermarket conversions Edit

are several companies in the U.S. conversions. The most common have been from electric cars to plug-in but due to the different technology used in by each carmaker, the easiest are for 2004 2009 Toyota and for the Ford Escape/Mercury Mariner [20]

New energy vehicles Edit

In the term new energy vehicles refers to vehicles that are or fully powered by electricity, as battery electric vehicles plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (PHEVs). The government began implementation of its NEV in 2009 to foster the development and of new energy vehicles. [6]


AUDI A8 Electric Cars

Lower operating and maintenance Edit

Internal combustion are relatively inefficient at converting fuel energy to propulsion as of the energy is wasted as heat, and the while the engine is idling. motors. on the other hand, are efficient at converting stored into driving a vehicle. drive vehicles do not consume while at rest or coasting, and plug-in cars can capture and as much as one fifth of the energy lost during braking regenerative braking. [23] Typically, conventional gasoline effectively use only 15% of the fuel content to move the vehicle or to accessories, and diesel engines can on-board efficiencies of 20%, electric drive vehicles have on-board efficiencies of 80%. [23]

In the United States, as of early with a national average rate of US$0.10 per kWh. the cost per mile for a plug-in vehicle operating in all-electric is estimated between $0.02 to while the cost per mile of a automobile varies between to $0.20, considering a gasoline of $3.00 per gallon. [23] As price is expected to increase in the due to oil production decline and increases in demand, the cost difference in of PEVs is expected to become more advantageous. [23]

to Consumer Reports. as of December the Nissan Leaf has a cost of 3.5 per mile and the Chevrolet Volt has a in electric mode of 3.8 cents per The Volt cost per mile is because it is heavier than the These estimates are based on the economy and energy consumption on their tests and using a national average rate of 11 per kWh of electricity. When the Volt in range-extended mode using its gasoline-powered engine, the plug-in has a cost of 12.5 cents per

The out-of-pocket cost per mile of the most fuel efficient cars as tested by the magazine are the Prius. with a cost of 8.6 per miles, the Honda Civic with 9.5 cents per mile, the Corolla with 11.9 per mile, and the Hyundai Elantra cents per mile. The analysis found that on trips up to 100 mi km), the Volt is cheaper to than the Prius and the other cars due to the Volt’s 35 mi (56 km) driving on electricity. The previous operating do not include maintenance, depreciation or costs. [27]

All-electric and hybrid vehicles also lower maintenance costs as to internal combustion vehicles, electronic systems break much less often the mechanical systems in conventional and the fewer mechanical systems on last longer due to the better use of the engine. PEVs do not require oil and other routine maintenance [23] [24]

The following compares EPA’s estimated fuel costs and fuel ratings of all the plug-in electric rated by EPA in the December versus the most fuel gasoline-electric hybrid car. the Prius third generation. and EPA’s average new 2013 which has a fuel economy of 23 mpg -US (10 km; 28 mpg -imp ). [29] The table shows the fuel efficiency for cars and plug-in hybrids in mode expressed as KW-hrs/100 the metric used by EPA to rate cars before November [30]

Comparison of out-of-pocket fuel and fuel economy for all plug-in vehicles

rated by EPA as of December with MPGe and conventional MPG (1)

(as in the Monroney label and the US DoE

BAIC E150 EV Electric Cars
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E.
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E.
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E.
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. – 22 kWh Li-ion
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. – 22 kWh Li-ion

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Catalog ALL Electric Cars and hybrid/ News and Information about Electric Car and Electric Vehicle Technologies, batteries for vehicle catalog with specifications, pictures, ratings, reviews and discusssions about Electric and Hybrid cars - Green energy