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RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)

Plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands

Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands by year between 2010 and 2013. [ 1 ]

The fleet of plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands is the second largest per capita in the world after Norway. During 2013, the Netherlands reached a market penetration for highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles of around 1.71 vehicles per 1,000 people, over three times higher than the world’s two largest plug-in electric vehicle markets, the United States and Japan. [ 2 ] The Dutch plug-in electric drive segment’s market share surged almost ten times from 2012 to 5.34% new car sales in the country during that year, [ 3 ] achieving the world’s second highest in 2013 after Norway (5.6%). [ 2 ] The Netherlands is the second country, after Norway, where plug-in electric cars have topped the monthly ranking of new car sales. The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling new car twice in 2013, first in November and again in December [ 4 ] [ 5 ]

As of December 2013 [update]. a total of 29,342 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 24,512 range-extended or plug-in hybrids, 4,161 pure electric cars, and 669 are electric utility vans. When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 30,211 units. [ 1 ] The country’s electric vehicle stock reaches 53,254 units when mopeds (3,130), electric bicycles (19,772), and microcars (141) are accounted for. [ 1 ]

As of December 2012 [update]. the Netherlands was the country with the highest ratio of slow charging points to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV), with a ratio of more than 0.50, while the U.S had a slow EVSE/EV ratio of 0.20. The Netherlands’ mix of slow and fast chargers has allowed it to become the country with the highest number of charging point per capita in the world. [ 6 ] As of December 2013 [update]. there were 3,521 slow charging points available 24/7 to the public, 2,249 slow charging point with limited public access, and 106 public and semi-public fast charging points. [ 1 ]

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Dutch government initiated a plan to establish over 200 recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country by 2015. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station every 50 km (31 mi) for the country’s 16 million residents. [ 7 ]

Contents

Government incentives [ edit ]

Buyers also have access to parking spaces in Amsterdam reserved for battery electric vehicles. so they avoid the current wait for a parking place in Amsterdam, which can reach up to 10 years in some parts of the city. [ 14 ] Free charging is also offered in public parking spaces. [ 15 ] Other factors contributing to the rapid adoption of plug-in electric vehicles are the relative small size of the country, which reduces range anxiety (the Netherlands stretches about 100 mi (160 km) east to west); a long tradition of environmental activism; high gasoline prices ( US$8.50 per gallon as of January 2013), which make the cost of running a car on electricity five times cheaper; and also some EV leasing programs provide free or discounted gasoline-powered vehicles for those who want to take a vacation driving long distances. With all of these incentives and tax breaks, plug-in electric cars have similar driving costs than conventional cars. [ 15 ]

Initially, sales of plug-in electric car were lower than expected, and during 2012 the segment captured a market share of less than 1% of new car sales in the country. [ 15 ] As a result of the end of the total exemption of the registration fee, the segment sales peaked at the end of 2013, [ 16 ] and plug-in electric car sales reached a market share of 5.34% of new car sales in 2013. [ 3 ]

EV car sharing

On November 24, 2011, Amsterdam became the fifth city in the world with a Car2Go carsharing service, and the first in Europe with an all-electric fleet. A fleet of 300 Smart electric drives is available on-demand. As of September 2012 [update]. these Car2Go vehicles and other electric cars in Amsterdam had access to more than 320 charging stations in the city area. The number is expected to increase significantly up to 1,000 by end of 2012. [ 17 ]

Charging infrastructure [ edit ]

The number of charging stations increased from 400 units in 2010 to 1,841 in 2011. [ 18 ] As of December 2013 [update]. there were 3,521 slow charging points available 24/7 to the public, up from 2,782 in December 2012; 2,249 slow charging point with limited public access, up from 829 in December 2012; and 106 public and semi-public fast charging points, up from 63 in December 2012. [ 1 ] As of December 2012 [update]. the Netherlands was the country with the highest ratio of slow charging points to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV), with a ratio of more than 0.50, while the U.S had a slow EVSE/EV ratio of 0.20. The Netherlands’ mix of slow and fast chargers has allowed it to become the country with the highest number of charging point per capita in the world. [ 6 ]

Sales [ edit ]

The number of registered electric cars increased from 68 in 2009, [ 19 ] through 395 in 2010 to 1,182 in 2011. [ 18 ] Registrations reached 6,258 plug-in electric-drive passenger vehicles through December 2012, of which, 4,348 were range extending or plug-in hybrids. When buses, utility vans, trucks, motorcycles and other types of electric vehicles are accounted for, 7,410 plug-in electric vehicles were registered through December 2012. [ 20 ] Registrations during 2013 rose to 28,673 plug-in passenger cars, consisting of 24,512 plug-in hybrids and 4,161 all-electric cars. [ 1 ] Accounting for 669 electric utility vans, the highway-capable light-duty plug-in stock reaches 29,342 units as of December 2013 [update]. When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 30,211 units. [ 1 ] The country’s electric vehicle stock reaches 53,254 units when mopeds (3,130), electric bicycles (19,772), and microcars (141) are accounted for. [ 1 ]

Registrations of plug-in electric car represented a 0.57% share of total new car registrations in the country during 2011 and 2012, ahead of other European countries with a larger car market, such as Germany, France, and the U.K. [ 21 ] During 2013 plug-in electric passenger car registrations totaled 22,415 units, climbing 338% from 2012, the highest rate of growth of any country in the world in 2013. [ 2 ] [ 1 ] The segment’s market share surged almost ten times from 2012 to 5.34% new car sales in the country during that year, [ 3 ] the world’s second highest in 2013 after Norway (5.6%). [ 2 ]

RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)

A total of 5,093 plug-in electric cars were registered in the Netherlands during 2012. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Sales of range extending and plug-in hybrids in the Netherlands represented 8% of global sales of PHEVs in 2012. [ 6 ] Sales of plug-in hybrid cars took the lead over all-electric cars during 2012. The Opel Ampera was the best selling plug-in electric car in 2012 with 2,696 units sold, and the Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranked second, with 1,184 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt with 306 units sold during the year. Adding 140 Fisker Karmas sold during 2012, the plug-in hybrid segment led the Dutch EV market with 4,326 units sold during 2012, representing 84.9% of all plug-in electric car sales in the country that year. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] The Nissan Leaf was the top selling all-electric car in the country in 2012 with 265 units sold, and a total of 559 units since their introduction in the country by mid-2011. As of December 2012 [update]. the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family had sold 468 units since their release in 2010, including 252 iOns, 137 C-Zeros, and 79 i MiEVs. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]

Launched in the Dutch market in 2013, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV became the country’s top selling plug-in electric vehicle.

The Tesla Model S. released in the Dutch market in September 2013, became the country’s top selling all-electric car.

Again in December 2013, the Outlander P-HEV ranked as the top selling new car in the country with 4,976 units delivered, representing a 12.6% market share of new car sales that month. December sales reached a record of about 9,300 plug-in electric vehicles delivered, representing a world record market share of 23.8% of new car sales in the country. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] These record sales allowed the Netherlands to become the second country, after Norway, where plug-in electric cars have topped the monthly ranking of new car sales. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The strong increase of plug-in car sales during the last months of 2013 was due to the end of the total exemption of the registration fee for corporate cars, which is valid for 5 years. From January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee. [ 13 ]

The dominance of plug-in hybrids in the Netherlands is reflected by the fact that, accounting for cumulative registrations up to December 2013, four out of the top five selling plug-in electric models are plug-in hybrids. Dutch cumulative PEV registrations through December 2013 are led by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,038), followed by the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (6,283), Opel Ampera (4,922 units), and Prius PHV (3,891). Ranking fifth is the Tesla Model S with 1,192 units, which passed the Chevrolet Volt with 1,058 units in December 2013, and became the country’s top selling all-electric car. [ 1 ] [ 31 ] As of December 2013 [update]. out of 28,673 plug-in passenger cars registered in the Netherlands, plug-in hybrids represent 85.5% of total plug-in electric car registrations through 2013. [ 1 ]

2014

After the end of the registration fee exemption, sales fell to 404 units in January 2014, with the Volvo V60 PHEV leading monthly sales with 272 units, followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 82 units. Sales of all-electric cars were led by the BMW i3. with 15 units delivered. Only 7 units of the Model S were sold in January. [ 32 ]

Registrations by model [ edit ]

The following table presents registrations by year for the top selling plug-in electric cars by year since 2009 through December 2013.

RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)
RENAULT Kangoo Van Z.E. 22 kWh Li-ion 5dr / Electric (av UK mix)

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