The History of Toyota Prius

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The History Of Toyota Prius

The Prius [ˈpri.əs] is a hybrid mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Motor Corporation.

The Prius went on sale in Japan in making it the first mass-produced vehicle. It was subsequently introduced in 2001. The Prius is sold in than 40 countries and regions, its largest markets being of Japan and North America.

to the United States Environmental Agency, in 2007, the 2008 is the most fuel efficient car in the U.S. The UK Department for Transport reported the Prius is tied as the least CO2-emitting vehicle on in the UK.

1997–2000 (model NHW10)

The Prius, model NHW10, on sale in December 1997. It was only in Japan, though it has imported privately to the United Australia, and New Zealand. Many of cars are now being exported as vehicles to New Zealand and other

2001–2003 (model NHW11)

The Prius for the United States was powered by a 1.5-liter 4 cylinder engine, a permanent magnet AC motor, and a 274-volt nickel-metal (Ni-MH) battery pack. The engine developed 70hp and 82ft·lbf (111N·m) of torque. The motor generated a maximum of (33kW) and 258ft·lbf (350N·m) of

Japanese versions were powerful.

The engine and motor were increased over the model. Air conditioning and a continuously transmission were standard

In the United States, the NHW11 was the Prius to be sold. The Prius was between the smaller Echo and the Corolla. The published retail of the car was US$19,995.

The California Air Resources (CARB) classified the car as a Super Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV).

sales began in September

The official launch of the Prius in occurred in 2001 after the Motor Show.

2004–2009 NHW20)

The Prius was completely into a mid-size liftback is between the Corolla and the Camry in with redistributed mechanical and space that significantly the rear-seat legroom to exceed of many larger automobiles. The new is 6inches (150mm) longer the previous version. Its more body resulted in a drag of 0.26.

The new Hybrid Synergy (HSD) uses an all-electric for cooling. Combined with a and lighter NiMH battery, the is more powerful and more than the NHW11. Air conditioning is now independently of the gasoline engine, an first.

In the U.S. the battery of the 2004 Prius is warranted for (160,000km) or 8 years. The warranty in is 150,000miles (240,000km) or 10 years for the and in the seven Northeastern states have adopted the stricter emission control standards

It is as a SULEV (Super Ultra Low Vehicle) and is certified by California Air Board as an Advanced Technology Zero Emission Vehicle

NHTSA (United States) testing of the 2004 Prius a five star driver and star passenger rating in the collision test (out of stars). Side crash were four out of five for both front and rear The car scored four out of five in rollover testing.

IIHS tests score the Prius overall in frontal collisions and overall in side impact in models equipped with airbags. A Poor score is to models without side Side airbags became on 2007 American models.

In EuroNCAP tested the Prius. It the following ratings: Adult Child Occupant: Pedestrian.

the Prius’s options are Toyota’s of an advanced key called Smart Key or SKS (the feature can be user-deactivated), DVD on the MFD, vehicle stability and Bluetooth for hands-free calling. The model introduced some cosmetic changes, such as a liquid crystal display, as as new optional features such as a camera, advanced airbags and an audio system with an input. The 2007 Prius advanced and side-curtain airbags on all models. A Touring Edition was that includes an elongated rear spoiler as well as sharper-pointed 7-spoke 16 alloy with plastic hub cap cover to it from scratches when against the curb.

The Touring also comes with a European style tuned standard high-intensity-discharge (HID) and integrated (non-HID) fog lights.

parallel and reverse parking is in Japan and Europe.

The Prius is to having its batteries die if the vehicle for extended periods of time, as one month or more. In the event of one of the batteries dying, the vehicle has no power and therefore would be However, battery chargers are as well as a battery trickle which can be connected to a standard This will keep the batteries charged even if it for an extended period of time.[citation

Production of the Prius for the Chinese began in December 2005 by FAW Toyota Motor, a joint with First Automobile

Toyota announced it would selling the second-generation Prius in after the 2009 model

2010 —

Toyota the all-new 2010 Prius at the American International Auto Toyota estimates the EPA rated fuel economy cycle reach 50 mpg, a 4 mpg bump the previous model. Wind has been reduced with a of drag figure (Cd) of

Toyota filed over one patents on the new Prius, which is to go on in late Spring 2009. global goal is to sell 400,000 units annually by

Toyota had announced that the would be manufactured in the US in a new Blue Mississippi plant in 2010. In 2008 (in response to declining sales), Toyota suspended on the plant with no announced date.

Main article: hybrid

On January 10, 2009, Vice President of Environmental and Affairs Irv Miller announced Prius PHVs (plug-in vehicles) powered by lithium-ion will be available for fleet beginning late 2009. has indicated that the plug-in is due in 2011 for the general public.

In 1994, Toyota executive Uchiyamada was given the task of a new car which would be both efficient and environmentally friendly. reviewing over 100 hybrid the engineering team settled on a engine design based on a TRW patent, but many technical and problems had to be solved within the years that the team was to bring the car to the Japanese market, a they barely achieved as the Prius went on sale in 1997. A main problem was the of the battery, which needed to between 7 and 10 years.

The solution the engineers came up was to keep the battery pack 60% and 40% charged, proving to be the sweet for extending the battery life to that of the other car components.

The car was a success in Japan and after several years of test from the Japanese early the company felt it was safe to put it on in the U.S. and European markets in Sales were limited and waiting lists of up to 6 months common during the first few In 2004, a complete redesign, production, and soaring fuel led to significant increases in sales.[citation


The word prius is a word meaning [to go] before. A spokesman stated that chose this name the Prius vehicle is the predecessor of to come.

Prius is not a verb but a comparative adjective or adverb, the nominative singular form of the whose corresponding masculine and nominative singular forms are (see also Latin — Irregular adverbs and comparative and superlative forms) meanings ahead, in front, previous, earlier, preceding, former; basic. Some enjoy using Prii as the which would be correct if were a regular second Latin noun. The actual plural of the adjective is priora is slightly in error here).

All of forms are nominative case and are several other forms for the cases. As for the plural of Prius in Toyota has said that it is Prius and also that are welcome to use whatever they


Toyota announced on 7, 2007 that it had sold 1 hybrid vehicles globally, and of those 757,600 were Nearly 345,000 of the first 1 hybrid cars made by were sold in Japan. In May Toyota announced that its cumulative sales of the Prius had the 1 million mark.

The Prius, is sold in more than 40 and regions, has its largest markets in and North America. Nearly 60% of all sales have been in America, where 183,800 were sold in 2007. sales pace has accelerated in 2008, with 66,100 sold in North America in the four months, a rate would result in nearly sales if continued through the year.

In fact, Toyota 21,757 Prius hybrids in the States in April, setting a for April sales and making the the third most popular in the Toyota line, trailing the and the Camry.

U.S. sales of the began in August 2000. By sales there totaled and by 2002 had reached 20,119. In sales there were and doubled in 2005 to 107,897, 60% of the world total of 180,000. By 7, 2007, 266,212 Prius had sold in the U.S. and accounted for 40% of the market there in 2006. As of 2007 Toyota has sold Prius in the US since its initial in 2000.

Prius gas-electric mid-size sedan reported of 14,212 units for a best-ever and best-ever year-end sales of units, up 68.9 percent 2006.

See also: Hybrid Drive

The Prius is a combined (sometimes referred to as series-parallel), a that can be propelled by gasoline and/or electric power. of the system include:

Regenerative using motor-generators, which kinetic energy of motion electrical energy that is in the traction battery and reduces on the brake pads;

A 1NZ-FXE combustion engine (ICE) Atkinson cycle which is more efficient than the powerful Otto cycle. The engine normally shuts off traffic stops and the accessories the air conditioning) are powered by the battery The engine is used both to the vehicle and to recharge the batteries. of the availability of extra power the electric motors for rapid the engine is sized smaller usual for increased fuel and lowered emissions with acceleration;

Two electric motor/generators: MG1 and MG1, reversible and up to 10,000 starts the engine and provides torque for the Continuously Variable (CVT). MG2 provides 50 kW (67 hp) between to 1,540 rpm and 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) between 0 to 1,200 rpm, to performance and economy. These are used as generators when for regenerative braking, and as motors are of starting the vehicle (and gas if needed) and low speed (

30mph 41mph (66km/h) in NHW20)

A Hybrid Synergy Drive unit that combines a gearset that behaves a Continuously Variable Transmission called the Power Split to increase efficiency. The computer HSD transaxle adjusts and blends the of power from the gasoline and electric motor-generator(s) as needed by the drive wheels and rechargeable

A sealed 38-module nickel hydride (NiMH) battery providing 273.6 volts, 6.5 A·h and weighing 53.3kg (118lb) is by Japan’s Panasonic. They are charged to 40–60% of maximum to prolong battery life as as provide a reserve for regenerative

Wind resistance is reduced by a coefficient of 0.26 (0.29 for model) with a Kammback to reduce air resistance. Lower tires are used to reduce friction;

A vacuum flask for hot coolant when the vehicle is off for reuse so as to reduce warm-up (US market);

An EV mode (or stealth that allows drivers to on electric power only low-power conditions for a limited of time (Europe and Asian aftermarket in the US). Advocates for the warn that the Prius is and that it could be hazardous to pedestrians and others accustomed to noise to warn of a nearby

Vehicle weight is reduced by the use of a resin gasoline tank and by the use of instead of steel for the engine bay and hatchback.

The computer program in the Prius shuts off the engine the car is stopped, is reversing, or is descending thereby dramatically decreasing consumption in city driving. The on-board computer program when and how to use the engine, motor, or to power the car and recharge the battery so as to efficiency. Typically, a gasoline runs inefficiently at half-throttle, a choking condition called loss, a major reason for the of gasoline engines compared to The Prius minimizes pumping by using a high torque as much as possible with the fully open. Drive-by-wire control technology and Toyota’s Synergy Drive (a torque electric drive, and computer are essential to this engine

In addition to the immediate benefit of fuel consumption and emissions, the gasoline engine also the performance of the catalytic converter, as the gases from an idling tend to cool the catalyst its optimal temperature.

Typical or diesel-engined vehicles consume when the vehicle is stopped, as is in city driving. The Prius shuts down the gasoline and runs solely off the battery at low speeds and when stopped. A car also gets worse consumption in city driving its engine is continually used to the car to driving speed and then energy is lost to friction during stop-and-go driving. The recaptures some of this by using regenerative braking to its battery pack while down with its motor-generators in mode. For acceptable acceleration the IC on a standard car typically is much than needed for constant-speed

By using both a gasoline and electric motors for acceleration the engine can be a smaller size and provide acceptable acceleration. means the greatest advantages of a are mainly in city driving, factors including driving air conditioning use, and short may offset some of this The frequent starting and stopping of the engine does not cause additional wear and tear or problems because the electric motors have enough to quickly spin the engine to speed (around 1,000 before fuel is admitted.

For any aerodynamic losses, which roughly as the velocity squared due to air are much greater on the highway in low speed city driving. The hybrid has less of an advantage in speed open road typical of intercity driving. the Prius still obtains fuel consumption under circumstances since it can use a smaller and efficient engine than otherwise be required.

The electric powered by the battery pack, can the extra peak power for acceleration, passing and limited climbing. The lower weight, sectional area and lowest coefficient of a production car in the U.S. (since the cancellation of the Honda make the Prius a very highway traveler, getting per US gallon (5.2L/100km; 54mpg-imp) on the according to the U.S. EPA.

The impact of the car’s batteries has questioned. To encourage battery dealers are paid a $200 fee for of the car’s batteries. Toyota has reports that some battery packs have the equivalent of 180,000miles (290,000km). As the start to age, early have shown that in at some cases the batteries can in excess of 250,000miles (400,000km).

battery longevity will depending upon the treatment and use of the battery pack. A degraded pack will reduce and fuel economy, but not leave the car

Fuel consumption, or fuel-efficiency in is generally measured as distance per unit volume of fuel, as in per gallon (mpg), or as the volume of required to cover a given as in litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 Diesel fuel does about an 11% higher energy than gasoline (petrol), so needs to be taken into in pure energy-efficiency calculations and Fuel-price-efficiency calculations will between various parts of the with diesel fuel prices being higher gasoline prices in some whilst in others it is less than gasoline.

Official data

United States

In the States, the Environmental Protection (EPA) test results be posted on new vehicle windows, and are the fuel consumption figures can be advertised. EPA testing procedures for all were revised in 2007 in an to better match what the driver would achieve. The data is taken from figures:

2008 Prius:

per US gallon (4.9L/100km; 58mpg-imp) for driving

45miles per US gallon 54mpg-imp) for highway driving

per US gallon (5.1L/100km; 55mpg-imp)

2001 Prius:

42miles per US (5.6L/100km; 50mpg-imp) city

41miles per US gallon (5.7L/100km; highway driving

The Prius is the efficient car available in the U.S. in based on the official rating.


The official fuel data, provided by the Department for rates the Prius as: 56.5miles per gallon (5.00L/100km; 47.0mpg-US) 67.3miles per imperial gallon 56.0mpg-US) extra urban and per imperial gallon (4.30L/100km; combined. Eleven diesel-powered some of them smaller, a better fuel-efficiency (by fuel than the Prius for combined

According to the Department for Transport, the is tied with the MINI D as the third least CO2-emitting at 104 g/km, behind the tied Polo 1.4 TDI and SEAT Ibiza 1.4 TDI at 99 — it is the least CO2-emitting car, the Polo and the Ibiza diesel (being these cars).

Independent test and comparisons with other

Several organizations have the fuel economy of the Prius and it directly with other

Consumer tests have petrol-electric hybrid cars in are a little more fuel-efficient (by volume) than top of the range However, diesel fuel has a higher energy density the gasoline used by the Prius, and in countries diesel is less than gasoline, so overall is still competitive with technology in some cases.

2009: compared the Prius to the all new 2010 Honda The Prius returned 54.4 MPG to 51.5 MPG.

September 2008: A Popular comparison shows that the Volkswagen Jetta TDi diesel has better highway fuel than the 2008 Prius: MPG compared to 44.8 MPG. The beats the Jetta in city economy, however: 44.7 MPG to 32 MPG.

August 2008: test of Prius and Honda resulted in the Prius averaging per US gallon (5.6L/100km; 50mpg-imp). the non-hybrid Fit averaged 28miles per US (8.4L/100km; 34mpg-imp). The Honda Fit was $8,425 less in this

Considering all vehicle factors, awarded the overall win in this by a narrow margin to the Honda

June 2008: The Prius is the fuel efficient car that Reports has tested, giving a fuel consumption rating of per US gallon (5.3L/100km; 53mpg-imp) for the

May 2008: The Prius was the overall of the Gas-Sipper Smackdown economy test, winning of the five tests. The 2005 VW TDI won the remaining two tests, but due to the higher of diesel the Jetta ranked in fuel costs behind the Prius and Smart Fortwo. The car tested was the North American Focus.

March 2008: The Sunday Times did a comparison of the with another car in long town and country driving. The showed that the other a BMW 520d SE with a 177bhp diesel engine and regenerative averaged 50.3miles per imperial (5.62L/100km; 41.9mpg-US) whilst the averaged 48.1miles per imperial (5.87L/100km; 40.1mpg-US) over the same route. The comparison was on a journey of 545miles (877km) London to Geneva, including (160km) of urban driving, 200miles (320km) of driving on roads, and about 200miles of motorway driving at speeds of up to per hour (126km/h) on one French

August 2007: UK’s Express magazine performed fuel efficiency tests, on roads, on a number of hatchbacks, and in 2007 published their of the ten most efficient. The Prius 10th place in the list, 41.5miles per imperial gallon 34.6mpg-US). A Citroën C4 Coupé 1.6 HDi got 1st with 49.6miles per imperial (5.70L/100km; 41.3mpg-US).

December test of the Prius and Civic Hybrid resulted in the outperforming its competitor by an additional 4.5 (0.50 L/100 km / 5.4 mpg–imp) at per US gallon (4.87L/100km; 58.0mpg-imp).

2005: In a Popular Mechanics diesel versus hybrid the Prius outperformed the Volkswagen GL TDI diesel in both city and fuel economy.

September Car and Driver tested the Prius with the Honda Civic Toyota Echo, and Volkswagen TDI over three separate The Prius yielded the best on the highway and town routes, tying the Echo for top spot on the route.

Motor Trend a test comparing the Prius a Honda Civic Hybrid. The had the better fuel economy 43.8miles per US gallon (5.37L/100km; compared to 39.9miles per US gallon 47.9mpg-imp) for the Civic.

CO2 advertising

In the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority, an body charged with the rules of the advertising industry, that a television advert for the Prius should not be broadcast in the same form, having rules concerning misleading The advert claimed the Prius up to one tonne less CO2 per year, on-screen text included: 1 of CO2 less than an equivalent vehicle with a diesel Average calculated on 20,000 km a

Points of contention were the chosen for comparison, whether up to one less adequately communicated reductions could be lower, and the distance used was appropriate: km per year is around a U.S. average annual driving while a UK car’s is 13,440 km.

An complaint to the New Zealand Advertising Authority, decision 03/360 was also upheld. It was ruled Toyota was in breach of the New Zealand standards code of ethics, by up to 89% fewer smog forming The figure was based on comparison Euro 3 standards, which new cars also met comfortably at the needed]

Lifetime energy

The British Government and British have requested Toyota detailed figures for the energy use and CO2 resulting from the building and of the Prius. The UK Government Car Service 130 Priuses. Toyota has not supplied the data they requested to claims that the lifetime usage of the Prius (including the environmental cost of manufacture and of the nickel-metal hydride battery) are by lower lifetime fuel

Toyota states that CO2 saving is 43 percent.


The large number of Prius-owning celebrities in 2002 prompted the Post to dub hybrids Hollywood’s politically correct status While conservative Prius were also cited in the vehicle carries an image as a car for politically liberal environmentalists. A San Francisco Chronicle article Prius Progressives were an archetype, quoting conservative pundit Rush Limbaugh that these liberals they’re ahead of the game on things, and they’re just

Some conservatives promote use of the Prius. For example, Jim Road What Would Jesus encouraged people to drive cars because of the damage large SUVs can do to others.

CIA chief R. James Woolsey, Jr. a Prius because of its low fuel Woolsey noted the volatility of the East, coupled with sentiment in much of the region. that the high percentage of oil in the Middle East gives profits to Middle Eastern Woolsey believes that it is a obligation to drive more vehicles.

In a Motor Trend article, Woolsey claimed those oil profits find way to terrorist groups like meaning that Americans who buy vehicles would, in effect, be funding terrorism. We’re for both sides in this and that’s not a good long-term said Woolsey. I have a sticker on the back of my Prius reads, Bin Laden hates car.


The Wall Journal reported in February on concerns that quiet like the Prius may pose a risk to those who rely on noise to sense the presence or of moving vehicles. Blind are a primary concern, and the National of the Blind advocates audio on hybrid vehicles, but increased may also affect sighted or bicyclists who are accustomed to aural from vehicles. In July a spokesperson for Toyota said the is aware of the issue and is studying Both State and Federal have been proposed and the Highway Traffic Safety held a public hearing.

Different groups and companies are at solutions.

Government incentives

A of governments have incentives are intended to encourage hybrid car In Belgium, the national government reductions in the purchase price of up to 15% for cars that have CO2 exhaust.

The federal government in offers to those who buy or lease cars a rebate, however the program expired on December 31, Some provincial governments offer incentives such as in Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec, and Prince Edward Island.

In the Kingdom, there are both and parking-related incentives. The fiscal are general; road tax is just £35 a Businesses can now (from 1 April claim 100% tax write-off for the because the car has CO2 emissions of less 110 grams per kilometre. The tax charge for a that is provided as a company car is 10% of its list price, rather the heftier rates that can be up to 35% of a list price.

Parking exist in Richmond upon (south west London), (Central London) for resident permits, Winchester (now Manchester, and Brighton has similar Drivers in London can register for an from the £8 daily congestion Some of the incentives in the United have been criticized in the given that non-hybrid some of which have fuel economy, are not afforded the incentives.

In the United States, the government offers a tax credit to until a certain number of has been sold by a manufacturer. has ranged from US$787 to which expired in 2007 for sold by Toyota. Some governments, including Colorado, Illinois offer tax incentives. engine automobiles are exempt high-occupancy vehicle lane in some U.S. states.) (currently until January 1,

Los Angeles and San Jose, California had hybrid cars from for street parking. New York offers a special green of their E-Z-Pass toll tag for hybrid owners who use the NYS Thruway which gives the owners a 10% on tolls. Also, the Port of New York and New Jersey offers green E-Z-Pass to hybrid who pay $4 instead of $8 to use all the bridges and tunnels New York and New Jersey, except in hours. But it is better to get the NYS Thruway pass, since the NYS Thruway pass allows the user to get the Authority Bridges and Tunnels while the Port Authority Pass does not allow the to get the NYS Thruway discount. (Both the Authority and NYS Thruway green are issued by New York State Service Centers, but users to make sure they are a NYS Thruway green E-Z-Pass if want to use both discounts.)

In the the government has lowered the tax for company-cars CO2 emissions below a certain (such as the Prius) to 14%. The tax on all class company-cars has been from 22 to 25%. As a result, in the January alone, more 1800 cars have sold. The importer has already that he can no longer meet the for the year 2008.

Privately cars with low CO2 emissions from lower road

In Sweden, private purchasers of the (or any other vehicle in the environmentally destructive class) are awarded SEK (roughly USD 1700, €1100) six months of ownership, in order to sales and use of such vehicles. The program has been very

Corporate incentives

Several companies offer employees Bank of America will $3000 on the purchase of new hybrid to full- and part-time associates more than 20 hours per Google, software company Solutions, and organic food and producer Clif Bar Co[broken offer employees a $5000 toward their purchase of hybrid vehicles including the Integrated Archive Systems, a Alto IT company, offers a subsidy toward the purchase of vehicles to full-time employees more than one year.[broken Clothing companies Timberland and law firm DLA Piper, non-profit Jewish Committee, software Topics Entertainment, Logistics Exel Contract Logistics, and firm ABR, Inc. are companies offering eligible significant discounts on certain vehicles including the Prius.[broken

Fiat 500e Electric Cars

Travelers Companies, a large company, offers hybrid a 10% discount on auto insurance in states. The Farmers Insurance offers a similar discount of up to 10% in states.[broken footnote]

EV mode

the vehicle is turned-on with the button, it is ready to drive with the electric motor, electric pumps warm the with previously saved hot coolant, before the internal engine is started. The delay starting the car and starting the internal engine is approximately seven The Asian and European versions of vehicle provide a button EV that maintains Electric mode after start up, most low-load driving

This permits driving low noise and no fuel consumption, and is as a quiet option for short for example in residential areas at in the Asia manual. The car automatically to normal mode if the battery exhausted. The North American does not have the EV button, the EV mode is still supported by the Prius Hybrid Vehicle computer. The PRIUS+ Project conversion instructions for do-it-yourselfers who to enable the button.

Toyota has now government approval to run on public for tests. Researchers at the Advanced and Energy Program at the University of Irvine and the Institute of Transportation at the University of California, Berkeley begin testing two specially Prius and analyze driver study air quality and energy However, electric-only driving remains limited to around miles (eleven kilometers) per in all-electric mode at up to 100 kilometers per (62 miles per hour).

No date has been set for public of EV mode, and it will not be available to the until a great deal of research has been done.

Main article: Plug-in

Plug-in hybrids use a larger vehicle battery pack is recharged from external in order to further reduce consumption. The NiMH batteries in a PHEV will be built to deeper discharge cycles loss of lifespan such as the battery pack in the Toyota EV. Operation of the vehicle will be similar to a normal hybrid, that the electric operation be more prevalent. In the case of a PHEV, on the highway, the gasoline will operate as before, the car with the same ability to and use freeways. Current converted also operate in a high blended mode which can but not eliminate fuel consumption on the

When driving in slower or with light loads, the will be used first in a mode, allowing moderate at low speeds (particularly under 41 km/h) to be driven entirely on Once the batteries have sufficiently discharged the car will revert back to the charge-sustaining of the current stock Prius.

A North Carolina firm, Vehicle Research Center, the Prius by adding a second improving its fuel efficiency by the distance it runs on electricity

1997–98 Car of the Year Japan

Scientific American names Motor Corporation as Business of the Year (Scientific American 50; 2003) for its singular accomplishment in the of affordable hybrid cars.

Trend Car of the Year 2004

Car and magazine’s Ten Best list for

North American Car of the Year for 2004. Nominated in 2001.

Engine of the Year for 2004.

Engineered Vehicle for 2004 by Automotive Engineering International

2005 European Car of the Year points, ahead of Citroën C4 267 points and Ford Focus II 228).

2006 EnerGuide (Midsize)

2006 Intellichoice Overall Value of the Year,

2007 Intellichoice Best in Winner:Best Retained Value, Fuel, Lowest Operating Lowest Ownership Costs

government named Toyota the world’s greenest car in a draft of over 6,000 cars.

Engine of the Year 2008 International Engine of the Year

2008 Nominated for Car of the Awards 2008, shortlisted for the top Green Car Awards

2008 JD and Associates Most Dependable Car

Honda Insight, which affordability.

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Retrieved on 30 June 2008. ^ | J.D. Power ^

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