Volkswagen XL1 Gets Green Light VWVortex

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22 February 2013

Just ten ago a car like this being to the public was a mere dream. Now has announced production of the XL1 1-liter (per 100km or 261mpg) We won t see it on our shores (at least this but Volkswagen has learned much this project and you ll see some of the trickle down into products, particularly as costs to drop. The longer, technical of the Volkswagen AG press release below with all the details

THE XL1 THE CAR

XL1 – the fuel-efficient car in the world: 
New XL1 Volkswagen consumes just 0.9 km (261 mpg) 

World’s 1-liter fuel economy car to be now 
Two-seat XL1 brings vision of car to production maturity

Future is one of the most stimulating topics of our The key question here: By how much the energy consumption of cars be if all the stops were pulled out for There is now an answer to this from Volkswagen. It is the new XL1, combined fuel consumption of 0.9 km.

No other production car with a plug-in hybrid is more

Lightweight construction (monocoque and parts made of carbon very low aerodynamic drag (Cd and a plug-in hybrid system — of a two-cylinder TDI engine (35 kW / 48 PS), (20 kW / 27 PS), 7-speed dual-clutch (DSG) and lithium-ion battery — a fuel consumption of 0.9 l/100 km, the new XL1 only emits 21 g/km Since it is designed as a plug-in the XL1 can also be driven for up to 50 kilometers in electric mode, i.e. zero emissions at point of The battery can be charged from a household electric outlet. battery regeneration is also to recover energy while down and store as much of it as in the battery for re-use.

In this the electric motor acts as an generator.

Despite the very levels of efficiency, developers able to design a body that offers greater practicality than in the two previous the XL1 now incorporates the comfort of slightly side-by-side seating, nearly as in vehicles, rather than the arrangement seen in both the 1-liter car presented in 2002 and the L1 in 2009 for optimal aerodynamics. In the new wing doors make it to enter and exit the car.

efficient car in the world

The new XL1 shows the way for extreme economy vehicles and technologies. It also demonstrates such cars can also be The feeling when driving the XL1 is dynamic — not based on pure rather on its pure efficiency, as by two examples. First, to travel at a speed of 100 km/h, the XL1 only 6.2 kW / 8.4 PS – a fraction of the performance necessary today’s cars. Second, in mode, the XL1 needs less 0.1 kWh to complete a one kilometer driving

These are sensational values have not been attained by any production vehicle in the world.

the full power of the hybrid is engaged, the Volkswagen accelerates 0 to 100 km/h in just 12,7 and its top speed is 160 km/h (electronically Yet these numbers alone do not the whole story. Since the XL1 just 795 kg, the drive system has an job of propelling the car. When power is needed, the electric which can deliver 140 Newton of torque from a standstill, as a booster to support the TDI engine Newton meters of torque).

Together, the TDI and E-motor deliver a torque of 140 Newton meters and 51 kW in mode.

Plug-in hybrid

With the XL1, Volkswagen is a plug-in hybrid concept, utilizes the fuel-efficient technology of the rail turbodiesel (TDI) and the clutch transmission (DSG). The TDI its stated maximum power of 35 kW / 48 PS just 0.8 liter displacement. The hybrid unit is housed the vehicle’s driven rear

The actual hybrid module electric motor and clutch is between the TDI and the 7-speed DSG; module was integrated in the DSG transmission in place of the usual flywheel. The battery (capacity: 5.5 kWh) is integrated in the front section the E-motor with energy. at 220 Volts, the power electronics the flow of high voltage from and to the battery or E-motor and direct current to alternating

The body electrical system of the XL1 is with the necessary 12 Volts via a converter and a small auxiliary

The E-motor supports the TDI in acceleration but as described it can also power the XL1 on its own for a of up to 50 km. In this mode, the TDI is decoupled the drivetrain by disengaging a clutch, and it is down. Meanwhile, the clutch on the side remains closed, so the DSG is engaged with the electric Important: The driver can choose to the XL1 in pure electric mode that the battery is sufficiently As soon as the electric mode on the instrument panel is pressed, the car is exclusively by electrical power.

of the TDI is a very smooth and comfortable In what is known as “pulse of the TDI engine while driving, the motor’s rotor is sped up and is quickly coupled to the engine This accelerates the TDI to the required and starts it. The entire process place without any jolts, so the hardly notices the TDI engine

When the XL1 is braked, the E-motor as a generator that utilizes the energy to charge the battery regeneration). In certain operating the load of the TDI engine can be shifted so it operates at its most favorable level. The gears of the automatically 7-speed DSG are also always with the aim of minimizing energy The engine controller regulates all flow and drive management taking into account the demanded at any given moment by the

Some of the parameters used to the optimum propulsion mode for the conditions are: accelerator position and demanded engine as well as the energy supply and mix of and electrical energy at any given

The two-cylinder TDI (0.8 liter was derived from a four-cylinder TDI liter displacement), and so the 0.8 TDI exhibits a spacing of 88 mm, its cylinder bore is mm, and its stroke is 80.5 mm. The 0.8 TDI of the XL1 also key internal modifications for reducing with the 1.6 TDI. They specially formed piston for multiple injection and individual of the individual injection jets.

The smooth running properties of the rail engines were to the two-cylinder engine. In addition, a shaft that is driven by the turning at the same speed smooth engine running.

the TDI’s aluminum crankcase was to achieve high dimensional which in turn leads to low friction losses. With the of reducing emissions, exhaust gas and an oxidation catalytic converter as as a diesel particulate filter are Equipped in this way, the 0.8 TDI fulfils the limits of the Euro-6 standard.

Also designed for efficiency is the cooling system. Engine only cools the TDI by activating the mechanical water pump engine operating conditions it. This cooling system an automatically controlled air intake at the front of the vehicle to reduce system drag. This management strategy also towards reduced fuel

A second electric water which is also used as needed, circulates a separate temperature coolant loop to the starter generator and power

Design for a new era

The XL1 is 3,888 mm long, mm wide and just 1,153 mm These are extreme dimensions. The has a similar length (3,970 mm) and (1,682 mm), but it is significantly (1,462 mm). The wing of the XL1 are reminiscent of those of a high-end car. They are hinged at two low on the A-pillars and just above the in the roof frame, so they do not swivel upwards, but slightly as well.

The doors also far into the roof. When are opened, they create an large amount of entry and space.

Visually, the XL1 also the styling lines of the L1 presented in However, the XL1 has a more dynamic thanks to its greater width. The design was uncompromisingly subjected to the of aerodynamics.

In front, the XL1 exhibits the width; the car then narrows the rear. Viewed from the form of the XL1 resembles that of a especially at the rear, where the optimally conform to the air flow the car body to reduce the Volkswagen’s drag.

In side profile, the traces an arc from the A-pillar to the rear. The rear wheels are covered to prevent air turbulence; the air here are also optimized by spoilers in front of and behind the Observers will look for mirrors in vain; replacing are small cameras integrated in the doors known as e-Mirrors outside mirrors) that images of the surroundings behind the car to two inside the vehicle.

The front of the XL1 no exhibits the typical radiator however, it still reflects the of the current Volkswagen “design with a predominance of horizontal Specifically, there is a black that combines with the dual LED headlights to form a band. The actual air intake for the TDI engine, battery and interior is in the lower front end section and has controlled louvres. The narrow indicators are also designed in LED these form an “L” shape vertically follows the wheel and horizontally a line beneath the

This creates a front which – although it is completely and extreme in its dimensions – can immediately be as a Volkswagen design by its clean

At the rear, however, the design an entirely new path, but the brand of precision and quality are clearly The XL1 represents a new dimension of Volkswagen Four characteristics are discernible: there is the characteristic dolphin form, once again, narrows towards the rear very precise trailing for perfect aerodynamics. Second, is the coupé-shaped roofline without windscreen. Merging into the is the large rear boot lid covers the drive unit and luggage space.

Third, is a strip of red LEDs that the rear section at the top and on the sides. in this LED strip are the reversing rear lights, rear fog and brake lights. Fourth, is a diffuser, which exhibits seamless transitions to the completely underbody.

Running gear with materials

The running gear is by lightweight construction with safety. In front, a double suspension is used, while a link system is employed at the The front and rear suspension are very compact in construction and a high level of driving

The running gear components directly to the CFRP monocoque in key

Running gear weight is by the use of aluminum parts (including components, brake callipers, steering gear housing), (anti-roll bars), ceramics discs) magnesium (wheels) and (steering wheel body). wheel bearings and drive as well as optimized low rolling tires from Michelin 115/80 R 15; rear: 145/55 R contribute to the low energy consumption of the new Safety gains are realized by an braking system (ABS) and an stabilization program.

That is sustainability without maximum would not really be a step The new XL1 shows how these two parameters can be into harmony.

THE XL1 MANUFACTURING

manufacturing: 
Body of new XL1 weighs 230 kg / 507 lbs. 

Monocoque and exterior are produced from lightweight 
Volkswagen has set up handcrafting-like manufacturing for the XL1 in

The XL1 is a car of the future that is being today. Not only are its technologies but also the fact that is producing large parts of the XL1 in and strong carbon fibre polymer (CFRP). The monocoque its slightly offset seats for and front passenger, all exterior parts as well as functional such as the anti-roll bars are all of CFRP. The preferred process for CFRP components at Volkswagen is the RTM (Resin Transfer Moulding). The of this material or its specific is only around 20 per cent of a comparable steel exterior

The CFRP parts exhibit a of stiffness and strength that is by no inferior to that of comparable or aluminium parts, yet the exterior of the XL1 is just 1.2 mm thick.

Innovative RTM

Compared to other methods as manufacturing CFRP in a prepreg CFRP production via RTM is more with lower costs at part volumes because it can be The RTM parts are produced in multi-shell, and vacuum-sealed tools. This injecting liquid resin at pressure into the tool the semi-finished carbon material interior has the shape of the part to be

The part cures afterwards in the

CFRP paves the way to the future

A at the scales shows why CFRP is the material for the body of the XL1. The weighs just 795 kg. Of this 227 kg represents the entire drive including the battery, 153 kg the running 80 kg the equipment and 105 kg the electrical system. leaves 230 kg, which is precisely the of the body – produced largely of including wing doors, windscreen with thin-glass and the highly safe monocoque.

A of 21.3 percent of the new XL1, or 169 kg, of CFRP. In addition, Volkswagen lightweight metals for 22.5 of all parts (179 kg). 23.2 percent (184 kg) of the new XL1 is from steel and iron.

The of its weight is distributed among other polymers (e.g. side windows), metals, fibres, process materials and

Thanks to CFRP, the XL1 is not only in weight, but very safe as This is due in part to the high-strength monocoque that is also In a crash, it provides the necessary space for the driver and passenger.

This is achieved by intelligent of load paths, including the use of structures in the monocoque. In addition, the and rear aluminium car structures a large share of the crash These principles were implemented in the design of the CFRP where an aluminium impact is used to absorb crash a stiff CFRP door also minimises intrusions the CFRP safety cell. attention was given to the rescue of as well.

If the XL1 is resting upside on its roof after a rollover pyrotechnic separating screws opening of the doors (swing

XL1 embodies what is feasible

The new XL1 is currently the most fuel and eco-friendly automobile in the world. The reason that this could be built is because it the limits of what is feasible in terms of the technologies it utilises and its method. Consider XL1 technologies: is implementing highly innovative and materials that offer the efficiency possible today.

XL1 manufacturing: In Northern Germany, largest carmaker has set up a completely new manufacturing for the XL1, which largely of CFRP.

Manufacturing in

The XL1 is manufactured by Volkswagen Osnabrück In the former Karmann plants around 1,800 employees such cars as the Golf and the new Porsche Boxster. As is usual in the of mass produced vehicles the Golf Cabriolet, many such as the monocoque, engine, suspensions and battery are supplied by plants and external suppliers. in the small production series for the the specialists from Osnabrück are not the classic path of large-scale rather they are practicing handcrafting.

Nonetheless, the XL1 production implemented in Osnabrück are highly and unique. There were no examples of the individual production anywhere in the world, because no car has been produced so thoroughly in a composite material. Over the term, other Group will also benefit the numerous innovations implemented in the The production process for the new XL1 in detail:
 
Production I – bodyshell frame

Production of the XL1 with delivery of the CFRP which is produced by a supplier in using the RTM process. The manufacturing itself was developed over years in close cooperation Volkswagen. In Osnabrück, the monocoque is to an assembly support plate; is where the body is built – but doors or lids.

This body production stage is to as the “bodyshell frame”. At this all parts are moved to their design positions by special This approach is necessary to the tight manufacturing tolerances.

The interior and exterior surfaces of the itself are pretreated in advance. pretreatment is necessary to attain gaps and smooth surfaces. In the interior of the XL1, many of CFRP surfaces were left uncovered by trim and so the high-tech material remains

Volkswagen e-Golf Electric Cars

The individual CFRP components are to one another in the bodyshell frame by – a highly complex and unique in manufacturing technology. The operation of the roof section to the monocoque just how complex this is:

Unlike welded metal the roof of the XL1 cannot simply be on the monocoque. Rather the strength of the material must compensate for all fit of the monocoque-roof side member and the different material thicknesses of the roof. Therefore, this is made to hover over the before gluing.

The gluing itself is performed according to a defined sequence with defined curing times.

Over the further course of stage I, the boot pan is brought position with the water and it is glued and screw fastened. In all structural and exterior skin (rear crossmembers, rear part, side panels and rear) are positioned and screwed via a fixture. Last but not least, check and document the dimensional of the entire assembly as the final of every production stage.

individual part of the XL1 is also with a serial number and its history.

Production stage II – assembly

In parallel to production I, the two wing doors are produced in a production stage, including crash reinforcements. Volkswagen its own tool for this, which is to fit the doors to adjoining body with millimetre precision to the extremely tight production – even before it is placed in the This is the only way to assure all requirements are fulfilled in the installed such as the defined joint dimension and uniform transitions the surfaces.

Unlike sheet parts, carbon elements be reshaped afterwards.

Production III – body assembly


At the third station, the bodyshell frame is on a new fixture. Here, all body are assembled to achieve the specified gap and flush mounting precisions. parts include the wing bonnet, boot lid, bumper and various small

Adjustment of the wing doors is a challenge, because a precise fit be assured to the roof and side surfaces.

Production stage IV –

A total of 32 exterior skin are painted on the XL1; six of them are carbon parts.

The CFRP are specially prepared for painting in the of XL1 production. Background: To fulfil the standard of a Class A paint job a minimally thin and therefore paint layer, in the RTM process a fleece layer or resin is added to the parts as a cover Compared to conventional CFRP used in the industry, this a weight reduction of over 50 per

This innovative CFRP process owes its implementation to fundamental work by the Volkswagen Deveopment Centre in Wolfsburg and an series of tests by paint at the Osnabrück plant.

The paint consists of three layers. The with a filler material is by the base paint – the coloured Then the final layer or is applied, which provides a level of scratch resistance and UV

In the interior, on the other hand, a “matt pearl grey” is applied, or – on visible carbon such as the sills – a matt The same applies to the roof on which Volkswagen omitted parts in the interest of attaining weight and maximising open for the occupants.

Production stage V – car section

Following painting, all are transported to final assembly. The step here is to join the body section to the prefabricated pan. The module of this plan consists of components as the double wishbone front with swivel bearing from die-cast aluminium), bar (produced from CFRP), a 12-Volt battery for the vehicle system and the front ceramic discs.

Also integrated in is the high-voltage battery for the plug-in drive. Another special is the mounting position of the air conditioner: the is typically mounted in the vehicle For packaging reasons, however, is not possible in the XL1. Therefore, the air is installed in a special insulated in the car’s front section.

Automatic testing of the vehicle’s system and preliminary startup of all components are also performed at the ITC and Test Centre) in this stage.

Production stage VI – section and interior

The classic of the drive unit with the occurs after assembly of the end. The entire drive (two-cylinder TDI engine, E-motor and DSG) is installed in the rear of the XL1. The rear axle from die-cast aluminium with final drive and ceramic brake discs, as as the CFRP anti-roll bar, the components integrated at the rear.
In the cockpit is installed at this via its magnesium supports.

Unlike in production, no provisions were for preassembling the XL1 cockpit due to the small volume. Instead, all individual parts are mounted inside the superstructure. The dashboard itself of a moulded wood fibre which is just 1.4 mm thick and is in a special pressing process.

stage VII – windscreen, doors and

The XL1 now takes on more of its final After assembly of the drive the laminated glass windscreen is which is only 3.2 mm thick. The doors (including outside mechanisms) are reinstalled; their positions and alignments were set in production stage II. The bonnet is mounted on the monocoque with pins.

Last but least, the XL1 its magnesium wheels. They are with low rolling resistance sized 115/80 R15 (front) and R16 (rear).

Production stage – final assembly of the doors

The doors are the most complex components of the XL1 body. After the painted door and integrating the mechanisms, special assembly are used to glue the polymer windows into place. The part of the windows is permanently to the exterior door skin for reasons, while a segment of the area of the side windows can be

Finally, the reversing cameras are in their housings, and the e-mirrors serve as digital door are mounted to the exterior CFRP of the

Production stage IX – startup

In the of quality assurance, all electronic modules and their individual and wire harness are checked. At the time, the control modules are with the vehicle’s specific harness. Now, final of the XL1 is performed. First, the entire system is checked. For this “simulated” isolation faults are to test the system’s emergency functionality.

The next step is to up the internal combustion engine; all and sensors of the TDI engine are checked, and values at its first startup are to target values. In parallel, adjust the camera-based door (e-Mirror); the correct visual of the e-Mirror is optimally tuned a special computer program.

all systems have been up, a check is made of all electrical this too is done according to a observed checklist. Only is the production of the XL1 completed with a drive to check dynamic functions. Now the world’s most car can be delivered!

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